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IN ■ BM^^I^^ 


le Incarnational Dynamic 
of the Constitutions 

JAnos LukAcs, S J. 

BX3701 .S88x 

Studies in the spirituality of Jesuits. 

Issue: v.36:no.4(2004:winter) 

Arrival Date: 01/03/2005 

O'Neill Current Periodicals 

36/4 WINTER 20O 


The Seminar is composed of a number of Jesuits appointed from their provinces in the 
United States. 

It concerns itself with topics pertaining to the spiritual doctrine and practice of 
Jesuits, especially United States Jesuits, and communicates the results to the members of 
the provinces through its publication, STUDIES IN THE SPIRITUALITY OF JESUITS. This is 
done in the spirit of Vatican It's recommendation that religious institutes recapture the 
original inspiration of their founders and adapt it to the circumstances of modern times. 
The Seminar welcomes reactions or comments in regard to the material that it publishes. 

The Seminar focuses its direct attention on the life and work of the Jesuits of 
the United States. The issues treated may be common also to Jesuits of other regions, to 
other priests, religious, and laity, to both men and women. Hence, the journal, while 
meant especially for American Jesuits, is not exclusively for them. Others who may find 
it helpful are cordially welcome to make use of it. 


James W. Bernauer, S.J., teaches philosophy at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Mass. 

Richard A. Blake, S.J., is chairman of the Seminar and editor of STUDIES; he teaches 
film studies at Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Mass. (2002). 

Kevin Burke, S.J., teaches systematic theology at Weston Jesuit School of Theology, 
Cambridge, Mass. (2003). 

Gregory C. Chisholm, S.J., is administrator of Holy Name of Jesus Parish, in South 
Los Angeles, Cal. (2003). 

T. Frank Kennedy, S.J., teaches music and is director of the Jesuit Institute at Bos- 
ton College, Chestnut Hill, Mass. (2004). 

Thomas P. Rausch, S.J., teaches theology at Loyola Marymount University, Los 
Angeles, Cal. (2002). 

William E. Reiser, S.J., teaches theology at the College of the Holy Cross, Worces- 
ter, Mass. (2004). 

Thomas L Schubeck, S.J., teaches social ethics at John Carroll University, Univer- 
sity Heights, Ohio (2004). 

Dennis C. Smolarski, S.J., teaches mathematics and computer science at Santa Clara 
University, Santa Clara, Cal. (2003). 

The opinions expressed in STUDIES are those of the individual authors thereof. 
Parentheses designate year of entry as a Seminar member. 

Copyright © 2004 and published by the Seminar on Jesuit Spirituality 

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The Incarnational Dynamic 
of the Constitutions 

Janos Lukacs, S.J. 


36/4 • WINTER 2004 

The first word . . . 

Sometime during the festivities surrounding an ordination, a beefy relative 
or longtime family friend will approach the new priest with a broad grin, 
and searching for an appropriate expression of congratulations will boom 
out, "Well, you made it!" From his perspective, the sentiment really hits 
close to the bull's-eye in many ways. For people used to a more normal 
educational flight path, our decade-plus of looping the academic loops 
must seem an incredible ordeal. Priesthood comes as a reward if not for 
survival, then at least for endurance. For an outsider looking in, it means a 
transition from an endless hitch in boot camp to a seat at officers' mess. 

From the perspective of a Jesuit looking down the golden barrel of a 
fast-approaching jubilee, concluding that someone "made it" at ordination 
seems a bit premature, to say the least. In the thick chronicle of a Jesuit's 
life, the event fits more properly into preface than afterword. Undeniably, 
of course, it does mark a transition of sorts and does call for a celebration, 
but it's worth reflecting on the nature of the change in the life experience 
of the men making the transition. It provides opportunities for new sacra- 
mental ministries, to be sure, but in a way that would surprise most guests 
at the first-Mass reception, little else really changes. Most go back to 
studies of some kind for a while, continue to live in a community, and face 
continued evaluations by superiors, tertian instructors, thesis directors, 
principals, provincials, and pastors. And of course the holy oils do not 
make a wise, compassionate minister out of a self-centered fool. The newly 
ordained may get a seat at officers' mess, but he still takes his turn at 
washing the dishes and putting out the garbage. 

Before angrily casting this aside as one more screed of a self-hating 
anticlerical cleric from the lost generation, please read a bit more. The 
suggestion I'm trying to insinuate into our thinking about formation and 
ordination is a retrieval of a sense of the continuum of Jesuit life. Our 
discourse has been imperceptibly dominated by a rhetoric of segmentation. 
We think of different phases of Jesuit life as "milestones." Some are met 
and passed with joy, as in the case of first vows and ordination; others 
with dread, as in the case of stepping down from a leadership role or re- 
tirement; from moving up to being moved out. Note the change to passive 
voice. We emphasize the transitions, and downplay the continuities. In a 
word, it's really quite difficult for us to think of Jesuit life as a whole, and 
as a result, we have to cope with several unarticulated consequences, like 
resentment and frustration. 

This conceptual fragmentation of Jesuit life probably stems from the 
stark ruptures that mark our early years. After a prescribed number of 
years, usually two or three, we go through a process of rigorous evaluation, 
and if approved, move to a different community in a different city and 
begin an entirely different form of activity. We think of it as inevitable 
progress to move from one predetermined stage to another through the 
course of training to some readily definable goal like ordination. Unfortu- 
nately, the process can lead to a contest model. Ask anyone with experi- 
ence in formation. Moving on can be understood as a right that is due me, 
but superiors can block me through some insidious abuse of power. In 
such an atmosphere of confrontation, it becomes easy to function with a 
presumption of sinister intent. Superiors must be acting from prejudice, 
ignorance, or malice; protesters from wounded pride. It's hard to feel that 
everyone is on the same side, trying to choose the greater good for the 
Church, the Society, and especially the individual. The segmentation 
model readily provides the seedbed for divisiveness and resentment. 

The toughest transition of all for many young Jesuits, I'm con- 
vinced, takes place sometime after ordination, when the young priest or 
brother receives his first permanent assignment. The support of a peer 
group of contemporaries is gone, and he may be the youngest man in the 
house by thirty years or more. The older men will surely welcome him as a 
sign of the province's commitment to the apostolate, but in many insidi- 
ous ways, they can marginalize him as an inexperienced kid who can't 
change the community's time-tested way of proceeding. He's cheeky for 
trying. In the past, in a tough situation, the young Jesuit could take 
strength from the fact that in a couple of years, he'd be moving on to the 
next phase of his training. This time the assignment is for keeps. The 
mind-set of the fragmentation model runs into the reality of the continu- 
um, and the result can take the form of enormous frustration and aliena- 

Many older men can experience the mind-set of segmentation in an 
oddly contrarian fashion. Transition from one state to another is some- 
thing that took place in the past, and today belongs to the world of young- 
er Jesuits, especially those in formation. In their training, these Jesuits 
happily made all the prescribed transitions, but at some point they enter 
into a would-be final segment and stop. They've made it, and no further 
adjustments are necessary. If any further transitions do come, as they must 
inevitably, the result can be traumatic. 

Like many a haustus-room bloviation, this has been long on point- 
ing to a perceived problem, and short on indicating solutions. And perhaps 
its provocative generalizations may lead to a further reflection and conver- 
sation in both boot-camp barracks and officers' mess. 

If so, the fulminations have served their purpose. 


However, we won't end this introductory phase of conversation with 
merely a description of a problem. At this point, I'm delighted to intro- 
duce Janos Lukacs, a Jesuit from the Hungarian Province, who proposes a 
way to think about Jesuit life in terms of its unities rather than its seg- 
ments. Taking his lead from developmental psychology, he proposes a way 
to link the Spiritual Exercises with the Constitutions and read both docu- 
ments in terms underlying continuity of the various stages a Jesuit encoun- 
ters in his own growth in holiness, from the novitiate to the period after 
tertianship and through the years of one's active ministry. He recognizes 
the fact that most Jesuits have spent little time with the Constitutions, and 
thus uses the more familiar Exercises as a key to unlock the document that 
Ignatius intended as a guide for Jesuits in their lifelong ministries. 

This essay is not a translation. In the tradition of Vladimir Nabokov 
and Jerzy Kozinski, Janos has taken English as his adopted language and 
made it his own, much to the embarrassment and admiration of us native 
speakers who still wrestle with syntax and metaphor. His clear, graceful 
prose is a pleasure to read, and his elucidation of the Ignatian documents 
provides much to think about. 

Richard A. Blake, S.J. 



The Ailing Wing of Contemporary 

Ignatian Spirituality 1 

I. The Constitutions in Jesuit Life, Present 

and Past: A Lame Wing 4 

II. The Dynamic of the Spiritual Exercises 7 

III. A Dynamic of the Constitutions? 11 

Part III of the Constitutions: The Novitiate 17 

Part IV of the Constitutions: Scholastic Life 26 

Part V of the Constitutions: Tertianship 32 

Part VI of the Constitutions: After Final Vows 36 

The Vows 38 

IV. Possible Methods for Continuing 

the Exploration 41 

Theory and Practice in Understanding 

the Constitutions 45 

Supplemental Bibliography 47 


Janos Lukacs, S.J., has been serving as director of 
novices for the Hungarian Province since 2002. After 
earning a degree in computer science, he studied 
theology for two years and then entered the newly 
reconstituted Hungarian Province in 1991. After do- 
ing philosophy in Munich and theology in Paris, he 
became socius to the novice director. He came to 
Weston Jesuit School of Theology, in Cambridge, 
Mass., where he received his S.T.L. in spiritual theol- 
ogy. He has translated a new Hungarian edition of 
the Autobiography of Saint Ignatius. He can be reached 
at his e-mail address: 

The Incarnational Dynamic 
of the Constitutions 

Both authored by St. Ignatius, the Spiritual Exercises and 
the Constitutions propose an identical path to holiness. The 
first outlines the steps leading to a life commitment, and the 
other proposes concrete means for bringing it to fulfillment. 
Their common dynamic manifests itself in the stages of 
development Ignatius prescribes for those who have been 
called to a life of service and contemplation in the Society. 

The Ailing Wing of Contemporary 
Ignatian Spirituality 

As a child, I remember once catching sight of a bird that 
impressed me by its size and by its sleek silhouette; I could 
easily imagine it taking pleasure in flying high up in the sky, 
confronting the elements and reaching high speeds with ease and 
gracefulness. But the bird — I could not tell what kind it was — was 
visibly not well. It was flying with great difficulty from one tree to 
the other. As I took a closer look, I observed one wing full of life, the 
other lame, hardly having the strength to glide even for a few 

In some ways, this appears to be an apt image of contempo- 
rary Ignatian spirituality, some forty years into an unparalleled 
movement of renewal in the Society of Jesus. In accord with the 
intention of the Second Vatican Council to renew religious life in the 
Church, the Thirty-first General Congregation (1965-66) initiated a 
thorough transformation of Jesuit life. By adopting the double goal 


of "adaptation and renewal/' 1 the congregation confirmed the insight 
of the council that there is a necessary correlation between returning 
to the founding charism and opening new windows to the modern 
world. 2 A fresh look at Ignatian sources was seen as a necessary 
condition for an authentic aggiornamento: in the Society governance, 
formation, and ministries were to be adapted to "modern ways and 
necessities of living" in a way that in the meantime would ensure 
that "the very spiritual heritage of our Institute . . . [was] to be 
purified and enriched anew according to the necessities of our 
times" (GC3132, 74, nos. 20 f.). 

In the subsequent sweeping renewal the Spiritual Exercises 
played a key role. A return to the practice of the first generation of 
Jesuits of giving the Exercises to individuals rather than to groups 

served in an exemplary way the 
^ — — — — — double goal of the congregation, 

Although scholarly interest bein S more rooted in th , e 1 § natia " 

has not been lacking, tradition on . the one hand and 

.. T .. £ . j offering pertinent support to our 

practical reception of the ° r . , rr ., m 

r ~ ..... , , » . t contemporaries on the other. The 

Constitutions lags behind , . L , r L ,. t , , 

» <> „i o . . i f ruj t of this renewal has become 
that of the Spiritual . c . u j . 

_ { r manifest by now, and contempo- 

rary Jesuits are by and large famil- 
__ __ mm ^^_^^_ iar with them. The book of the 

Spiritual Exercises has become a 
favorite "lifeline" to our Ignatian roots. 3 It is often in our hands, and 
it is a "living" text. We consult it habitually and find it quite mean- 
ingful in a variety of personal or pastoral situations, including areas 
like spiritual direction, our understanding of religious life, integra- 

The Renewal of Our Laws, in Documents of the 31st and 32nd General 
Congregation of the Society of Jesus (St. Louis: The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1977), 73, 
no. 18. Hereafter this source will be abbreviated to GC3132, followed by the page 
number and the boldface marginal number. 

Perfectee Caritatis: Decree on the Adaptation and Renewal of Religious Life, in 
Vatican Council II: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents, ed. Austin Flannery 
(Collegeville, Minn.: The Liturgical Press, 1975), 612, no. 2. 

The Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius, ed. with notes and commentary by 
George E. Ganss, S.J. (St. Louis: The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1992). Hereafter this 
source will be abbreviated to SpEx, followed by the boldface marginal number, 
sometimes a superscript "verse number," and then the page number in parentheses. 
All emphases in the quotations have been added to the original text. 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions •& 3 

tion of psychological insights into Ignatian spirituality, support 
offered to lay co-workers, and the like. In the midst of a postmodern 
culture and a post-Vatican II Church, the book of the Spiritual 
Exercises has returned to being foundational for our Jesuit identity. 

In comparison, the other principal Ignatian source, the Consti- 
tutions, is less a favorite. Although scholarly interest has not been 
lacking, practical reception of the Constitutions lags behind that of 
the Spiritual Exercises.* Apart from being an important theme in the 
novitiate and in the tertianship, the Constitutions remain relatively 
insignificant in our daily lives as Jesuits. We seldom declare today 
that our identity is in the Constitu- 
tions, and we rarely refer to this 

text when talking about our be- We might be flying on just 

longing to the Society. In practical one Ignatian wing because 

matters there is a tangible reluc- our approach to the 

tance to rely on this Ignatian text, Constitutions is in some 

in sharp contrast to the central ways unsatisfactory. 

role that we tend to attribute to 

the book of the Exercises. For ex- "^ — —" — 
ample, although several parts of 

the Constitutions describe in detail Ignatius's idea of Jesuit formation, 
this book has hardly been a reference in the meetings of formators 
that I attended in various provinces in recent years. We seem to 
draw on our two major Ignatian sources in a very uneven way, as if 
one wing of our contemporary Jesuit spirituality were full of life and 
the other lame. 

I will begin this essay by sketching out our heritage of a 
troubled relationship with the Constitutions. I will then examine more 
in detail how in the case of our other primary Ignatian source, the 
Spiritual Exercises, we have become skilled at using this Ignatian text 
in a contemporary cultural environment. Next, I will propose a way 
to use the wealth of our experience in giving the Spiritual Exercises 
as an approach to the Constitutions. The nature of these consider- 

See Ignacio Iparraguirre, S.J., Contemporary Trends in Studies on the 
Constitutions of the Society of Jesus: Annotated Bibliographical Orientations (St. Louis: The 
Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1974), and an updated bibliography in Carlos Coupeau, 
"Beginning, Middle, and End: A Rhetorical Study of the Constitutions of the Society 
of Jesus as a Classic of Spirituality" (S.T.D. thesis, Weston Jesuit School of Theology, 

4 -0- JAnos Lukacs, S.J. 

ations will be suggestive rather than probative; some possible ways 
of developing a more systematic approach will be proposed in a 
subsequent chapter. 

I. The Constitutions in Jesuit Life, Present 
and Past: A Lame Wing 

Several recent general congregations addressed the question of 
how pertinent the Constitutions are to our daily Jesuits lives. 
The promulgation of the Complementary Norms by the most 
recent congregation was a major effort to promote "an ever more 
perfect observance of our Constitutions and our Institute/' 5 In the 
meantime, Father General directed the attention of the participants 
of the Thirty-fourth General Congregation to the original Ignatian 
text: "Without this book of challenges and reminders, our desire to 
go forward remains without perspectives and without energy." 6 In 
the course of our continuing Ignatian renewal, we are called to give 
a more prominent place to the Constitutions in our Jesuit lives than 

Yet, in a postmodern culture, a more immediate use of the 
Constitutions is not necessarily seen as a realistic or desirable goal. 
The bias for the Exercises in our contemporary Jesuit life, the enthusi- 
asm for the one text and the distance from the other, seems to result 
from a deep-seated suspicion that the two texts are of unequal value. 
The question is often asked whether or not the book of the Constitu- 
tions is simply much more dependent on a sixteenth-century cultural 
context than the Exercises. The tacit assumption we seem to make is 
that the Ignatius of the Exercises was interested in personal freedom 
and encountering the Spirit, whereas the Ignatius of the Constitutions 

The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus and Their Complementary Norms: A 
Complete English Translation of the Official Latin Texts (Saint Louis: The Institute of 
Jesuit Sources, 1996), 57. Hereafter this source will be abbreviated to ConsCN, 
followed by C and the boldface paragraph number when the reference is to the text 
of the Constitutions. Sometimes the paragraph number is followed by a superscript 
"verse number." All emphases in the quotations have been added to the original text. 

"On Our Law and Our Life," third introductory discourse of Father General 
Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S.J., delivered on January 7, 1995, in Documents of the Thirty- 
Fourth General Congregation of the Society of Jesus (Saint Louis: The Institute of Jesuit 
Sources), 278. This latter source will hereafter be abbreviated to GC34. 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions ^ 5 

was concerned with organizational development and prescriptions. 
As if the author of the two were not the same man, in the Exercises 
we intuitively sense freedom, while in the Constitutions, we tend to 
perceive regulations that go against our desire for freedom. 

As Father General said during his introductory discourse to 
the Thirty-fourth Congregation, modern readers of the Constitutions 
are confronted with "the eternal problem that brings the letter into 
conflict with the Spirit, the institu- 
tion in conflict with the charism" — ^ ^— — ^^— 
(278). Our current perspective dif- NkoUs Bobadula expressed 

fers from that of Ignatius for Mg reservations by claiming 

whom particular details of the ., . „., ^ ... .. 

„ ,., ,. ,, that the Constitutions were 

Constitutions were apparently not , 7 . , , . xr , ir 

,, rr , , J , a prolix labyrinth that 

in opposition to the freedom he ..» . 7 • . 

j . j t tah- neither superiors nor subjects 

desired Jesuits to acquire. When r J 

describing Jesuit formation in the 

Constitutions, he writes with an to understand. 

"assurance that those who are not ^ _ _ 
yet sufficiently advanced will be 

able to discover in the Constitutions advice and instruction for mak- 
ing progress on the way" (276). In the Ignatian vision, there seems to 
be no antagonistic opposition between Spirit and Letter: 

It is important to learn from Ignatius's experience. ... All one has to 
do is to open up the book of the Spiritual Exercises and to leaf 
through the book of the Constitutions to come face to face with 
Ignatius and his great inspirations, his wide horizons, his worldwide 
measures; and also with an Ignatius who goes into the least detail 
and particulars of conduct and process. We do not have a double 
personality here, or two parallel records of activity. Ignatius allows 
himself to be taken over by the logic of the Incarnate Word in whom 
true infinity and actual finiteness are joined together. (278) 

In other words, as we take a closer look at the two Ignatian 
texts, we discover that both imply a sense of freedom and a multi- 
tude of meticulously articulated details. The difference could be lying 
not in the texts but in the way we understand them. We might be 
flying on just one Ignatian wing because our approach to the Consti- 
tutions is in some ways unsatisfactory. 

Recent history of Ignatian spirituality suggests that this suspi- 
cion is quite plausible. Until about fifty years ago, our use of the 
Spiritual Exercises was unsatisfactory in the sense that we did not 


recognize this text as a handbook for directors of individually di- 
rected retreats. Although Jesuits certainly used much of the Exercises 
as a basis for preached retreats, the intended function of the book 
was not quite understood. It was not clear how the text described a 
specific relationship between a director and a directee, and a series 
of ingenious exercises to introduce individuals into a personal 
experience of God. As a result, particular details (like many of the 
annotations) were overlooked because they did not appear pertinent 
to retreats that were not individually directed. Similarly today, while 
we are aware of the significance of the Constitutions, we read them, 
and often enough have even prayed over them, but we have yet to 
learn how to use this text. It looks as if history may be repeating 

Our contemporary difficulties are not unrelated to similar 
difficulties in the past. Even before the promulgation of the Constitu- 
tions, Nicolas Bobadilla expressed his reservations by claiming that 
"the Constitutions were a 'prolix labyrinth' that neither superiors nor 

subjects would ever be able to un- 

derstand. ,/7 In fact, the text never 

served as a practical rule for life in 
By putting Ignatian means, Jesuit houses. For practical pur- 

including minute details poses, as John O'Malley informs 

of the "letter" of the text, us, both Ignatius and local superi- 

at the service of a dynamic ors compiled sets of rules, based 

progression toward God, we on excerpts from the Constitutions, 

become spiritual guides with that were to be observed in partic- 
some quite extraordinary ular residences and by persons 

competencies in a holding specific offices in the 

contemporary cultural context. house (337). In 1580 Mercurian 

published an official Summary that 
became a common set of rules to 
be observed throughout the Soci- 
ety. Summaries were welcomed because they served well the imme- 
diate objective of offering "traffic regulations for larger communities," 
allowing Jesuits "to adapt easily and feel at home as they moved 
from house to house, from country to country" (338). 


See John O'Malley, The First Jesuits (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University 
Press, 1993), 334. 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions ^ 7 

In an indirect way, however, summaries contributed to ob- 
structing the reception of the Constitutions in the Society. Summaries 
conserved many elements of the Ignatian text but did not reproduce 
the context of the Ignatian vision within which particular details 
were to be interpreted. The official Summary presented universally 
valid prescriptions, prescinding from an individual's progress in 
religious life and of his degree of incorporation into the body of the 
Society. 8 Although specific elements of the Constitutions were com- 
monly known, they were not necessarily seen as being in the service 
of a dynamic progression toward God, in growing freedom in the 
Spirit. 9 Bluntly put: in the early history of the Society, the door was 
opened for a vital feature of the Constitutions to be missed. As a 
result, the understanding of the Institute of the Society could be 
determined — in a more or less domineering way — by a flat legalistic 
interpretation. Up to the Second Vatican Council, such legalistic use 
of excerpts from the Constitutions played an important role in main- 
taining a preconciliar Jesuit lifestyle, which in many aspects proved 
to be deficient in leading Jesuits to greater freedom in the Spirit in 
the modern world. As we open the book of the Constitutions today, 
our efforts to understand the text seem to be still burdened by this 
heritage: we do not tend to marvel at and to explore this Ignatian 
text with the same inner openness that we bring to the study of the 
Spiritual Exercises. 

II. The Dynamic of the Spiritual Exercises 

The book of the Spiritual Exercises envisages a dynamic progres- 
sion toward greater freedom in the Spirit to love and serve 
under the Standard of Christ; in contemporary Ignatian 
spirituality, this purpose of the Spiritual Exercises is self-evident. This 
self-evident statement has been the basis for a profusion of research 
on the text of the Exercises, for the simple reason that its particular 

Coupeau, "Beginning, Middle, and End," 26 f . 

"The Summary of the Constitutions served us well, but it was defective. It was 
as though someone took King Lear and extracted the great speeches and lyrical 
passages, arranged them in some rough logical order, dismembered the text, 
dislocated the dramatic structure and destroyed the story. And then said, there you 
have the essence of King Lear" (Joseph Veale, "How the Constitutions Work," in The 
Way, Supplement 61 [Spring 1988], 9). 


details could be studied under the specific angle of how they fos- 
tered a dynamic progression toward God. Similarly, in our practice 
of giving the Exercises, we are confident that particular Ignatian 
exercises and teachings will help a retreatant who is seeking greater 
freedom in the Spirit. Our familiarity with the overall purpose of the 
Exercises enables us to apply the Ignatian exercises specifically or to 
adapt them freely according to what seems best in a particular 
situation. In other words, both in scholarly research and in giving 
the Exercises, we are spontaneously capable of understanding the 
"letter" as being in the service of growth in the Spirit. 

As we quite spontaneously relate particular elements of the 
text (like the "requirement/ 7 to feel sorrow over one's sins during the 
First Week) to the overarching horizon of a progression toward God, 
we rely on our implicit sense of the psycho-spiritual process that we 
call the "dynamic of the Exercises." Those giving the Exercises 

progressively develop a sense of 
_^^^^^^^_ - ^^^^^^^^ — this mysterious dynamic that be- 
comes an almost tangible reality in 
We are well aware that no the inte nsive days of a retreat. 

one will mechanically receive This is one of the most surprising 
a grace by doing an exercise: features of the Exercises: "Despite 

we know, and we experience, a n differences, and the enduring 
that grace is always a gift, uniqueness of each exercitant, 

and there is always there still exists a fundamental dy- 

an element of surprise and namic which is the same for all." 10 

freshness in this gift. Once we become familiar with this 

dynamic, particular details in the 
book of the Spiritual Exercises be- 
gin to make sense, because we can see their fruit in our practice of 
helping others. By putting Ignatian means, including minute details 
of the "letter" of the text, at the service of a dynamic progression 
toward God, we become spiritual guides with some quite extraordi- 
nary competencies in a contemporary cultural context. 

First, when giving retreats we can set up a favorable physical, 
psychological, and spiritual environment that optimally serves the 
needs of a person in search of God. For example, we see the impor- 

Alex Lefrank and Maurice Giuliani, Freedom for Service: Dynamics of the 
Ignatian Exercises as Currently Understood and Practiced (Rome: World Federation of 
Christian Life Communities, 1989), 12. 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions <& 9 

tance of the annotations, and we are able to adapt them flexibly to 
particular circumstances. 

Second, with a sense of the dynamic of the Exercises, we are 
capable of going right to the heart of the matter in a great variety of 
human situations. In a respectful way, we examine individuals from 
a specific angle and assess where they are situated along the trajec- 
tory of the psycho-spiritual process of the Exercises or indeed 
whether they are on that path. Once we answer this question, we 
can identify the most basic and most pressing spiritual needs of the 
person (that is, the grace of feeling 

loved by God or seeing one's sin- _ mmmm ^^_ mm ^ _____ 
fulness or perceiving similar expe- 
riences). As directors of the Exer- Both texts capture a single 
cises, we turn towards these Ignatian vision of a 
needs, convinced that no real progression toward God, and 
progress is possible until the grace we can— in theory— expect 
of this particular stage has been our familiarity with the 
truly asked for and received. Exercises to he of help in 

Third, we become able to grasping the dynamic 

help a person by means of specific °f ^ e Constitutions, 

exercises. These exercises, we ___________ ____ 

firmly believe, will dispose the 

person to receiving a desired grace. We are well aware that no one 
will mechanically receive a grace by doing an exercise: we know, 
and we experience, that grace is always a gift, and there is always an 
element of surprise and freshness in this gift. Yet we are quite 
certain that the desired gift will arrive quite soon, and that the 
particular exercise is likely to open the door to it in some way. We 
cannot read the mind of God, but our experience, together with the 
authority of the Spiritual Exercises, tells us what we can reasonably 
hope to happen. 

Fourth, as a result of these steps, retreatants can enjoy recur- 
ring periods of consolation that confirm, in retrospect, the sometimes 
quite strenuous struggle that preceded these consolations. A re- 
newed sense of freedom, meaningfulness, and trust in God is such a 
precious experience that it generally leads to an increased desire for 
God. Thus, the dynamic of the Exercises itself is confirmed, and the 
retreatant is called to engage more fully in it. The dynamic of the 
Exercises, once it has taken off, is usually self-sustaining. If the 
retreat goes well, then the director of the Exercises can progressively 

10 ^ JAnos Lukacs, SJ. 

retire to the background and leave the guidance more and more 
directly to the Spirit. 

Fifth, the director of the Exercises enjoys a rare privilege in the 
midst of a pervasively anti-authoritarian postmodern culture: one 
has surprisingly little difficulty exercising authority. Overt or re- 
pressed conflicts between the retreatant and the director are rela- 
tively rare. This is quite remarkable because, from a third person's 
point of view, the director can be quite authoritarian; little details of 
one's daily routine — sleeping and eating habits, rest and physical 
exercise — can all be subject to the director's judgment. Why does one 
submit oneself so eagerly to such an authority? The Exercises cer- 
tainly do not eliminate all conflict in a dreamlike, undisturbed 
atmosphere. But the primary place of conflict is not between the 
retreatant and the director. Conflict is stirred within the retreatant, 
who experiences a more-or-less manifest clash of mighty internal 
forces. With the help of the rules for the discernment of the spirits, 
these internal forces can be identified as influences of the good or 
the bad spirit, supportive of or contrary to "what I want/ 7 Conse- 
quently, the retreatant develops a deep sense of whether he or she 
is moving "forward" or not. Someone who is engaged in the dy- 
namic of the Exercises will thus perceive the director's more or less 
authoritative or even somewhat clumsy support as a valuable, most 
welcome assistance in moving toward the desired direction in the 
midst of strong, conflicting spiritual motions. 

These examples show the extent to which our awareness of 
the psycho-spiritual dynamic of the Exercises is constitutive of a 
practical Ignatian spirituality. This dynamic is what makes the book 
of the Exercises special: it weaves various meditations, considerations, 
methods of prayer, and conversations with the director together in a 
way that the whole enhances the meaningfulness of each element. 
The significant difference between our practice of using Ignatian 
elements within the Exercises and outside them can be explained by 
this central feature of the Exercises. At present, our efforts in the 
area of formation seem to lack the synergy that we know from the 
Exercises precisely because we do not have a comparable sense of 
the spiritual (and also psychological) process of transformation that 
will take place during the long years of Jesuit formation. 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions ^ 11 

III. A Dynamic of the Constitutions? 

Is there a way to conceive of our entire Jesuit life as a whole, as a 
coherent, dynamic process, enabling familiar Ignatian elements 
to work in synergy in the same way as they do within the 
Spiritual Exercises? There are indications that Ignatius did have an 
implicit sense of such a dynamic. His letters suggest that when 
dealing with fellow Jesuits, he was in possession of the remarkable 
"competencies" that we know from our practice of giving the Spiri- 
tual Exercises: going right to the heart of the matter and being 
authoritative, yet perceived as supportive. In an era when religious 
life was so corrupted that it had little if any appeal, Ignatius was 
able to accompany young men beyond the intensive days of the 
Spiritual Exercises into a life choice that they found — even in the 
midst of extreme hardships — grace filled, meaningful, and satisfying, 
rather like a person engaged in doing the Spiritual Exercises. 

The text of the Constitutions also gives some hints about a 
dynamic movement toward God. Expressions like "progress" and 
"progressing in the Spirit" are not 
rare, and some commentators sug- 
gest that "we can detect in the The Constitutions concern 
Constitutions a dynamic similar to themselves with the question 
that of the Spiritual Exercises." 11 of how an initial, fragile, and 
Regrettably, these authors tend to often quite volatile spiritual 
remain within the limits of a "spir- movement can be embodied 
itually insightful or "sapientielle" { n concrete situations 
reading," 12 giving little information f faHy Ufa 
about how this dynamic is to be 

conceived. The most direct evi- ^— — — — — ^— ^^— - 
dence for the significant role of a 

developmental dynamic can be found by recalling that Ignatius 
intended to follow a developmental pattern in the very way he 
organized the Constitutions: 

Andre de Jaer, S.J., Together for Mission: A Spiritual Reading of the 
Constitutions of the Society of Jesus (Saint Louis: The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 2001), 
75. See also Dominique Bertrand, Un Corps pour tEsprit: Essai sur I' experience 
communautaire selon les Constitutions de la Compagnie de Jesus (Paris: Desclee de 
Brouwer, 1974), 11-41. 


De Jaer, Together for Mission, vii. 

12 <f JAnos Lukacs, S.J. 

In fact, the originality of the Constitutions was nowhere more striking 
than in the developmental design according to which they followed 
the Jesuit from entrance into the Society through to his commission- 
ing. . . . Like the Exercises, the Constitutions were based on a presup- 
position that psychological or spiritual growth will take place, and 
they provided for it by prescribing certain things as appropriate for 
beginners and suggesting others as appropriate for more seasoned 
members. 13 

Ignatius chose to organize the material of the Constitutions in 
such a way that its very structure reflects a basic concern for the 
development of individuals. Although "in the order of [his] inten- 
tion" the actual focus of the Constitutions was "the body of the 

Society taken as a whole" (ConsCN 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ C 135 vl ), this theme is covered 

only in the second half of the text, 
The initial reactions of a since "this body is composed of its 

novice who finds himself in members; and . . . that which 

the unusual milieu of the takes place first is what pertains to 

novitiate will be mixed. On the individual members, in the 

the one hand, he is likely to sequence of admitting them [and] 

be consoled by the promise of fostering their progress. . . . There- 
a new start in community. fore our treatise will deal first with 

On the other hand, he will these individual members" (C 

find that his usual ways of 135 vv ). 

finding joy and security in Ignatius explicitly included 

daily life have been seriously this point in the Preamble of the 
reduced. Constitutions so that the idea of 

successive stages of progression 

would not be lost. Consequently, 
it seems reasonable to assume that the Constitutions are to be 
opened, not unlike the Spiritual Exercises, as a handbook for those 
who are familiar with an underlying developmental dynamic. 

At this point however, we encounter a major dilemma. If a 
sense of an underlying developmental dynamic is the key to under- 
standing the Constitutions, then how can one develop a sufficiently 
strong sense of this dynamic? Can it be "extracted" from the text? If 
the Constitutions work in the same way as the Exercises, then the 
answer is yes and no. No, because an awareness of the developmen- 


O'Malley, First Jesuits, 336 f. 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions ^ 13 

tal dynamic is the very precondition for understanding the text; it 
cannot be a priori extracted from it. And yes, because with however 
limited an initial sense of the underlying dynamic, the text can be 
expected to open up and reveal itself, very much as the text of the 
Exercises reveals more and more fully the astounding richness of its 
spiritual dynamic for a director who has given the thirty-day retreat 
once, twice, or several times. 

To get out of the Catch-22 dilemma, we can turn to the Exer- 
cises. Commentators often refer to the Exercises when faced with the 
problem that the Constitutions are hard to understand: 

The Constitutions are unintelligible apart from the experience of 
making the Exercises. There is an organic relationship between the 
two. It is helpful, as one reads the Constitutions and tries to live 
them, to see the Exercises coming through and to see the differences, 
to see how they cast light on the Exercises and how the Exercises 
cast light on them. 14 

Both texts capture a single Ignatian vision of a progression 
toward God, and we can — in theory — expect our familiarity with the 
Exercises to be of help in grasping the dynamic of the Constitutions. 
Surprisingly, the central aspect 
that we are interested in — a pro- ^^^^^^— ^— ^^^^^^— — 

gressive development in growing Retreatants often 

freedom in the Spirit — is by and . , ,1 . u 

. . . , r J spontaneously express this by 

large missing from commentaries r . . . » . . xf 

., ~ ° ,. ~ ... .. , beginning to reflect in the 

that compare the Constitutions to , ' °, °, 1 A , 

.v r, F A A , , A . , last days of a retreat about 

the Exercises. Antonio M. de Alda- , r .„ , ., , 

c i c how it will be possible to 

ma, for example, gives a range of . .«-•«.*« 

reasons why the Exercises can be tncarnate in daily life the 

called the "soul of the Constitu- graces received. 

tions" (the testimony of the First ^ ^ ^^^^_ 
Companions, the similarity of basic 

dispositions formed by the Spiritual Exercises and expected by the 
Constitutions, a similar vocabulary, and other such examples), with- 
out emphasizing that the common purpose of both texts is to foster 
a progression toward God through well-defined stages. 15 Secondary 

14 Veale, "How the Constitutions Work/' 6. 


Antonio M. de Aldama, S.J., "iLos ejercicios espirituales son el alma de las 
constituciones?" in Recherches Ignatiennes Communications, III-74/1. 

14 <0> JAnos LukAcs, SJ. 

literature offers only some rather vague hints of a similarity between 
both Ignatian texts and developmental processes: 

[In the Constitutions] the [General] Examen and Parts I-V, treating 
the formation of the individual, can be compared to the first two 
Weeks of the Exercises. . . . Formation is like a practical daily imple- 
mentation of the process shown in the Exercises. Part V, dealing with 
definitive incorporation through the vows, corresponds to the Elec- 
tion, while Parts VI to X, which concern the life of the companion 
fully formed . . . can be clarified by the contemplation of the paschal 
mystery in the Third and Fourth Weeks. 16 

The insight that there is a parallelism between the Exercises 
and the Constitutions is quite inspiring, and a closer look at the 
structure of the Constitutions suggests that one can go further in 
exploring this parallelism. Of the ten parts, Parts I to VI mirror the 
developmental vision of Ignatius: 

Part I discusses questions of admission to the novitiate. 

Part II deals with eventualities of dismissal. 

Part III treats life in the novitiate. 

Part IV speaks about issues concerning scholastics. 

Part V discusses final incorporation into the Society including 

Part VI is entitled "The Personal Life of Those Already Admit- 
ted or Incorporated into the Society/ 7 

For our purposes, Parts III to VI are of immediate interest. 
Parts VII to X will not be considered here because these leave be- 
hind the idea of individual development and turn toward issues 
concerning the whole of the body of the Society (missioning, foster- 
ing unity, governance, and preservation of its well-being). For 
reasons of simplicity, Parts I and II, which do not refer to extended 
periods of time, can also be set aside, allowing a clearer focus on 
Parts III to VI. These four parts are unique in the sense that they 
describe four distinct phases of Jesuit life — the novitiate, scholastic 
years, tertianship, and professed life — that are sufficiently long for 
"progress" to be made in a developmental dynamic. For a given 

De Jaer, Together for Mission, 76. 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions <? 15 

individual, these four parts flesh out what Ignatius called, when 
presenting the Institute of the Society, a "pathway to God." 17 

Between the two forms of the Ignatian "pathway to God," that 
of the Constitutions and that of the Exercises, there are some obvious 
similarities. The fact that the way to God consists of separate phases 
is a familiar Ignatian feature: "[H]e was very aware of the distinctive- 
ness of each stage on this long journey." 18 The number of these 
stages is identical: both the Spiritual Exercises and the Constitutions 
dedicate, as we have seen, four distinct sections to describing four 
different phases of a progression toward God. At each phase the 
individual is placed in front of a 

new set of challenges, and it is by 

means of facing these challenges 

that progression toward God can Just as the book of the 

be made: much as in the Exercises, Spiritual Exercises talks to 

"[I]n the Constitutions Ignatius those who give the Exercises 

wishes each to be able to advance rather than to the person 

towards God according to the par- doing them, Part III talks for 
ticular demands of each stage" the most part to those who 

(276). facilitate the intended 

The difference is that in the 
Spiritual Exercises, one is expected ^^^^^^™^^_^^_^^_ 
to advance by "spiritual actions" 

like "examining one's conscience, meditating, contemplating, praying 
vocally and mentally," and so on: this is the very reason why we 
talk about "spiritual exercises" (SpEx l vl [p. 21]). In the case of the 
Constitutions, there is a noticeable change. The progression de- 
manded here can be characterized as "incarnational": 

[Ignatius] introduces the novice into a personal incarnational process 
and an encounter with the real. . . . The spirit is allowed to immerse 
itself in the concrete details of daily life by means of spiritual and 
corporal exercises. . . . Perceptible here is an allusion to the descent 
of Christ, who took the path of the poor and humble servant. ... A 
dynamic of incarnation gets under way. 19 


Exposcit debitum, by Julius III, known as "The Formula of the Institute of the 
Society of Jesus/' in ConsCN p. 4, no. 1, col. 2. 


"Kolvenbach, "On Our Law and Our Life/' 276. 


De Jaer, Together for Mission, 54 f . 


Although Ignatian spirituality in its entirety can be character- 
ized as "incarnational" and it would be impossible to understand the 
Spiritual Exercises without assuming an incarnational concern, the 
word designates a distinctive feature of the Constitutions. From the 
Exercises to the Constitutions, there is a significant shift of focus. In 
the Spiritual Exercises, Ignatius concentrates on an intensive time 
spent exclusively with God, which implies the delicate beginnings of 
an incarnational movement ("preparing and disposing the sour 
[SpEx 1 (p. 21)]). The main concern here is a dynamic development 
of spiritual movements like inner dispositions, thoughts, feelings, 
memories, and desires, and so forth. In this sense, the Spiritual 
Exercises are "spiritual" before being "incarnational." 20 Retreatants 
often spontaneously express this by beginning to reflect in the last 
days of a retreat about how it will be possible to incarnate in daily 
life the graces received. In contrast, in the Constitutions — although 
this book is not less "spiritual" than the Exercises — progression 
towards God unfolds through a multitude of situations where the 
primary focus is not on spiritual movements, but rather on using 
material objects, relating to human beings, investing oneself in 
studies, and the like. The Constitutions concern themselves with the 
question of how an initial, fragile, and often quite volatile spiritual 
movement can be embodied in concrete situations of daily life. 
Progress toward God is made when an initial desire, insight, or 
attitude — a spiritual reality — becomes incarnated in acts that bring a 
Jesuit into actual contact with objects, persons, or even ideas that are 
to be found in this created world. Throughout the Constitutions, 
there is a distinctive concern that the incarnational movement does 
not stop at the stage of a devout feeling, desire, or conviction, but 
instead advances to the point of imprinting the historic reality of the 
world, whether in a Jesuit community or in an apostolic work. 

These are the criteria that I am going to take into consider- 
ation when invoking the Spiritual Exercises as a canon of interpreta- 
tion for the Constitutions, in the hope of being able to develop an 
initial sense of a presumed "incarnational dynamic." At each stage of 


Throughout this essay these two terms, each with a considerable theological 
history, will be used in a specific sense, "spiritual" referring to interior movements 
and "incarnational" meaning the realization, the embodiment, of a spiritual reality in 
the sense that de Jaer uses the word. A theological interpretation ("perceptible here is 
an allusion to the descent of Christ") would be possible, but it is not the topic of this 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions ^ 17 

formation, I am going to evoke some instances where the practice of 
giving the Exercises sheds light on the text of the Constitutions and 
on the developmental dynamic of Jesuit life. 

Part HI of the Constitutions: The Novitiate 

The first paragraph of Part III of the Constitutions explains that 
the goal of the novitiate is to advance "along the path of the divine 
service/' 21 This opens a developmental perspective, where a person 
can be expected "to make progress" (ConsCN C 243); in other words, 
he goes through some kind of transformation. There are two aspects 
of this transformation, a spiritual and an incarnational one, and the 
two are connected: one should advance "both in spirit and in vir- 
tues" (C 243). Progress in spirit refers to the "spiritual" exercises 
explained in the First Annotation (SpEx 1 [p. 21]). Progress in "vir- 
tues" indicates a more explicit incarnational concern; the dispositions 
formed by spiritual exercises are expected to manifest themselves in 
a visible way. The aim is to increase the ability of expressing a 
disposition by means of concrete acts: "[A] virtue is a disposition to 
act, desire, and feel that involves the exercise of judgment and leads 
to recognizable human excellence, an instance of human flourish- 
ing." 22 It is within this overarching dynamic of progressing in spirit 
and in virtues that particular details of Part III are to be understood. 

How do the Constitutions introduce novices into this move- 
ment of progress? A number of elements are strikingly similar to the 
First Week of the Exercises. First, the person going through a dy- 
namic of transformation is not to carry the ultimate responsibility for 
the process itself. Just as the book of the Spiritual Exercises talks to 
those who give the Exercises rather than to the person doing them, 
Part III talks for the most part to those who facilitate the intended 
transition: "[D]ue consideration and prudent care should be em- 
ployed toward preserving in their vocation those who are being kept 
and tested" (ConsCN C 243 v4 ). Little progress can be made without a 


For reasons of simplicity, I am going to concentrate on chap. 1 of Part III. 
Chap. 2, "The Preservation of the Body/' which concerns matters of health and 
clothing, will be ignored, as will the General Examen, which describes the six 
novitiate experiments (C 64-79). 


William C. Spohn, Go and Do Likewise: Jesus and Ethics (New York: 
Continuum, 1999), 28, quoting from Lee H. Yearly, "Recent Work on Virtue," Religious 
Studies Review 16 (1990): 2. 

18 <0> Janos LukAcs, S.J. 

competent guide: "It will be beneficial to have a faithful and compe- 
tent person," a novice director who facilitates the developmental 
movement (C 263 vl ). 

The novice director has to fulfill two basic functions, support- 
ing and challenging. This double role is familiar from the Exercises 
(6f., 12 f. [pp. 23, 24f.]). In the novitiate, support is essential: novices 
need "a person whom all those who are in probation may love . . . 
to [have] recourse [to] in their temptations and open themselves [to] 
with confidence, hoping to receive from him in our Lord counsel 
and aid in everything" (ConsCN C 263 v2 ). The use of authority for 
challenging individuals is also indispensable, just as it is when giving 
the Exercises. Part of the novice director's role is to instruct the 
novices "how to conduct themselves . . . , to encourage them to this, 

to remind them of it, and to give 
^^^^^^^^ mm ^^^^^^^^^ m ^ loving admonition" (C 263 vl ). The 
_ w . . „ r seemingly opposing functions of 

Realistically, respect for confirming and challenging are 

others is hard to maintain intrinsically interconnected, much 

because, as community as in our practice of g^g the 

life gets intense, Spiritual Exercises, where we do 

misunderstandings, not tend t0 have major difficulties 

power games, all kinds of bringing these two aspects to- 

weaknesses give way to more- gether. 
or-less subtle hostilities. A second similarity „ that 

___^_^«^^^^_^_ for growth to take place, a favor- 
able environment, a safe "milieu," 
has to be set up. 23 This environment is denned primarily by a num- 
ber of separations (C 244-49). In the Exercises, the secluded environ- 
ment helps a person to become more "apt ... to approach and to 
reach his Creator and Lord" (SpEx 20 v9 [p. 29]). In the case of the 
Constitutions, a rather close group is formed where individuals will 
have contacts — for the most part — with one another. 24 Similarly in 
the Exercises there is a single focus on God; in the novitiate there is 
a rather strong focus on a relatively small number of relationships. 

De Jaer, Together for Mission, 55. 

Some separations also exist within the group. This is how the group can be 
"organ-ized," transformed into a "body," an organic unity, which is a major concern 
of the Constitutions: "[T]he consideration which comes first and has more weight is 
that about the body of the Society" (C 135 vl ). 

The lncarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions <$- 19 

This is where practically all "relational energies" are to be invested. 
In the novitiate, a protected environment is a precondition for the 
spiritual and incarnational dynamic to set in: "[I]t is of great impor- 
tance . . . [for] their spiritual progress" (C 244 vl ). To create this 
environment is one of the first areas where authority is to be used, 
both in the novitiate and in the beginning of the Spiritual Exercises. 

The initial reactions of a novice who finds himself in the 
unusual milieu of the novitiate will be mixed. On the one hand, he 
is likely to be consoled by the promise of a new start in community. 
On the other hand, he will find that his usual ways of finding joy 
and security in daily life have 

been seriously reduced. For exam- ^ — — 
pie, the satisfaction drawn from 
using once familiar objects of com- 
fort is gone: "[T]hey must not 
have the use of anything as their 
own" (C 254 vl ). The result is a ten- 
sion, which is probably not explicit 
at the beginning but will manifest 
itself in a series of "ups and 
downs." In other words, powerful 
conflicting movements of consola- 
tions and desolations can be antici- 
pated, just as when things go well 
in the First Week of the Exercises 
(SpEx 6). 

A third key similarity be- 
tween Part III of the Constitutions 
and the Exercises is that in this 
disconcerting situation, uncondi- 
tional respect and service are 
asked for. The attitude of respect 
and service rings a bell for those 
familiar with the Exercises. The ^^__^^^^_^__«_ 
Third Annotation explains that 

"greater reverence is required of us" when we want to speak to 
God — enter a relationship with God — rather than simply making 
reflections about God (3 [p. 22 v3 ). "Service" of God is part of the 
grace asked for in the preparatory prayer of every single meditation 
throughout the four Weeks: "[A]sk for the grace of God our Lord 

Similarly, the Constitutions 

identify two ways of 

escaping the challenge of 

interpersonal relationships. 

The first is by retreating into 

a kind of passivity, by 

refusing to be drawn into 

common life. Ignatius is 

unambiguous on this point: 

"[I]dleness, which is the 

source of all evils, may have 

no place in the house. " The 

other way to harm a 

relationship is by dominating 

interpersonal situations with 

overt or covert aggression. 

Here, Ignatius is just as firm: 

"[P]assion or any anger of 

some toward others should 

not be permitted. " 


that all my intentions, actions and operations may be directed purely 
to the service and praise of His Divine Majesty" (46 [p. 40]). The 
Constitutions ask for a very similar attitude to be developed toward 
everyone in the community: "In everything they should try and 
desire to give the advantage to the others/' By this, more is asked 
than simply doing things for others; there is question of relating to, 
of being in the presence of, the other person in a particular way: 
"showing outwardly, in an unassuming and simple religious man- 
ner, the respect and reverence appropriate to each one's state" 
(ConsCN C 250 v4 ). Simply put, novices are asked to be responsible for 
the quality of their relationships with their companions in the house. 
The Constitutions are not satisfied with a spiritual feeling or desire: 
there is question of a richer, incarnational meaning of "respect" and 
"service." Respectful attention is to be fleshed out by concrete acts 
whenever appropriate: in the intensive context of a close commu- 
nity, interpersonal relationships are to mirror Gospel values. 

Reality is sure to fall short of ideals. The Constitutions foresee 
this likelihood, and this is a fourth analogy with the Spiritual Exer- 
cises. Realistically, respect for others is hard to maintain because, as 
community life gets intense, misunderstandings, power games, all 

kinds of weaknesses give way to 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ more-or-less subtle hostilities. The 

result is the disappearance of re- 
Intensive community life can S p ec t for others, and some kind of 
help individuals to recognize harm caused to a number of rela- 
these motivations to the tion ships. 

extent that their effects Qne can harm a relat ionship 
become visible; since they basically in one of two ways, both 
damage interpersonal of which will be f am ii iar to an ex- 
relationships, inclinations perienced retreat director, because 
receive a moral evaluation, these are the very ways of break- 
and they can be ing a relationship with God in 
labeled as "evil. " prayer. One is by giving up, more 
or less consciously ("this medita- 
tion is not helping me, why 
should I be sitting here?"), and the other is by becoming aggressive, 
more or less consciously ("I have been waiting long enough, I want 
this to happen"). A retreat director's job in such cases is to help a 
person remain attentive in a developing relationship with God (SpEx 
3, 12 f. [pp. 22, 24f.]). Similarly, the Constitutions identify two ways of 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions -0- 22 

escaping the challenge of interpersonal relationships. The first is by 
retreating into a kind of passivity, by refusing to be drawn into 
common life. Ignatius is unambiguous on this point: "[IJdleness, 
which is the source of all evils, may have no place in the house" (C 
253 v3 ). The other way to harm a relationship is by dominating 
interpersonal situations with overt or covert aggression. Here, Igna- 
tius is just as firm: "[P]assion or any anger of some toward others 
should not be permitted" (C 275 vl ). 

A primary job of a novice director is to be a guardian of 
human relationships, just as he is the guardian of a progressively 
developing, fragile relationship with God when giving the Spiritual 
Exercises. As long as the ideal of maintaining quality relationships 
with everyone in the house is upheld under all conditions, he finds 
himself in a position that is very similar to that of a retreat director: 
he can help in very personal ways, in issues that matter most to a 
given individual, always respecting the delicate dynamic that is 
setting in. By assuming responsibility for creating the proper condi- 
tions, he will become able to use his full spiritual and psychological 
arsenal to help novices toward the desired developmental goal. 

A fifth important similarity to the First Week of the Exercises is 
that relationships can be fostered primarily through increasing the 
awareness of a divided heart. Part III of the Constitutions challenges 
novices to get beyond the very same obstacles that manifest them- 
selves during the First Week; hence the prevalence of a traditional 
"ascetic" vocabulary here. 25 With competent and compassionate help, 
a novice can become aware of the negative motivations that are in 
fundamental opposition to a basic desire to be in harmony with 
others: prejudices, overt or repressed anger, fears, possessive tenden- 
cies, lack of trust, laziness, impatience, and many other obstacles will 
be discovered. These motions stem from the grey area where sin (for 
which the person is responsible) and original sin (for which there is 
no personal responsibility) intermingle; hence the neutral term: these 
are "inclinations" (C 265 vl ). At the outset, such inclinations are 
usually hidden, because they are to some extent unconscious and 
"automatic": they spring from the "old self," which was conditioned 
by childhood experiences or by later successes and failures in inter- 
personal relationships. Intensive community life can help individuals 
to recognize these motivations to the extent that their effects become 


Bertrand, Un Corps pour I'Esprit, 103. 

22 <0^ JAnos Lukacs, S.J. 

visible; since they damage interpersonal relationships, inclinations 
receive a moral evaluation, and they can be labeled as "evil" (C 

265 vl ). 

In the terminology of the Exercises, these evil inclinations are 
elements of one's sinfulness that keep a person // imprisoned ,/ (47 v5 
[p. 40]), unable to maintain close relationships in a habitual way. A 
person incapable of discerning inner tensions will spontaneously 
project these on others and will live with a deep sense of loneliness. 
An insufficiently differentiated self-image is manifested in being 

upset about "the speck of dust in 
— ■*— ^^^^— ^— ^^^^^^ someone else's eye while not no- 

It is also crucial to keep a ticin S the P lank in one ' s own/ ' In 

space open where the divided the dense interpersonal milieu of 

heart can be brought into an the novitiate, the most direct way 

intimate relationship with to P ro g ress from imprisonment 

God and healed in the tm ? rd freedom is b ^ ^cognizing 

, r £ .1 iij. and naming internal tensions. 

atmosphere of the absolute _. . ° . 

. r j.i. * , . . Through recurring acts of reconcil- 
ed wwcowazfaowfl/ foreu^we . ,. ° P , . a L . 
t , ^ 1 J d d mtion, accompanied by reflections 
love of God. u ;• i • j. i 
3 on how particular interpersonal 

, situations were spoiled, self- 

knowledge can grow, and novices 
can discover their particular way of being a "sinner yet called to be a 
companion of Jesus" (GC34, 236, no. 538). With a new sense of 
freedom, such a person is liberated to choose acts that are different 
from what would have been motivated through unconscious, "auto- 
matic" inclinations. Such acts advance the incarnational dynamic of 
the Constitutions in the novitiate toward growing freedom in the 

In a group where individuals recognize Gospel values as a 
norm of behavior, their deep yearning for communion will be met. 
To the extent that individuals make progress toward God, they 
begin to perceive others with increasing empathy and become 
capable of relating to them without fear or rivalry; in other words, 
intimacy can permeate interpersonal relationships. This grace is 
evocative of the First Week of the Exercises which leads — through 
the meditation on one's sin and the recognition of a divided heart — 
to an intimate, emotionally moving, and existentially transforming 
encounter with Christ (SpEx 52 [p. 42]). One of the fruits of the First 
Week is liberation from the loneliness inherent in sinfulness. Inter- 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions -0- 23 

estingly, both the Exercises and the Constitutions express this through 
allusions to the book of Genesis: at the beginning of this week, one 
has the image of oneself as a person "exiled among brute beasts" 
(SpEx 47 v6 [p. 40]), and when progress is made, one can begin to 
perceive "God our Lord, whom each one should strive to recognize 
in the other as in his image" (ConsCN C 250 v5 ). 

In the delicate process of increasing awareness of self, instruc- 
tions are one way of helping (C 277). One can clarify, for example, 
how one of Ignatius's favorite expressions, "humility," consists in a 
basic openness to the experience of the divided heart. It is also good 
to invite novices to express themselves about First Week issues (C 
280). More personalized and concrete hints to discover actual signs 
of a divided heart can come either from the novice director or from 
other members of the community (C 269-71). It is also crucial to 
keep a space open where the divided heart can be brought into an 
intimate relationship with God and healed in the atmosphere of the 
absolute and unconditional forgiving love of God (C 261). 

To foster the incarnational dynamic, the novice director can 
make use of a special feature of his relationship with novices: obedi- 
ence. Obedience, at this point, is an exceptional instrument for 
leading persons to the critical 

place where a clear choice can be ^— — — — ^^— — 
made between conflicting motiva- Jhe . f wher£ Qm shmU 

tions: one that is "automatic" be- • . n A • 

... , . _. endeavor to recognize God is 

cause it satisfies ones immediate . . . ., % . , .. 

, j j . , , , not given in the first place; it 

needs and desires, and the other ° . . , J . \. . ' f 

,, . ., . f . . is to be created in the 

that is the incarnation of a spin- .. ., , 

t rr , r i . community through 

tual effort, of a struggle not to ,. . . , , 

break the relationship with the dispositions and acts that 

novice director or the commitment emhod y an attttude °f 

made to God (C 284). Obedience res P ect and service ' 

can be of great help for persons ^_^^^^^_«__^^^_^_ 
who are "stuck" or not fully en- 
gaged in the incarnational dynamic of the first stage of Jesuit forma- 
tion, similar to what happens in the Spiritual Exercises when the 
director challenges a retreatant with the authority implied in his 
function. In this perspective, an act of obedience is comparable to 
the small "victory" of a retreatant who is able to persist in prayer in 

The obedience of professed Jesuits is part of a different dynamic (C 547-52). 

24 <0> JAnos Lukacs, S.J. 

a period of desolation, choosing to value the ongoing relationship 
with God and with the director over the option of acting upon his 
or her immediate needs and desires. 

Both the Spiritual Exercises and the Constitutions offer much to 
think about in the first phase of progressing toward God, so much 
so that attention can be scattered. A sixth similarity between the two 
texts is that both place strong emphasis on the responsibility of 
individuals to maintain a sense of unity and focus. In both cases, the 
intentionality of the person who is willing to make progress is called 
for. The Spiritual Exercises proposes a recurring preparatory prayer: 
"[A]sk God our Lord for the grace that all my intentions, actions, 
and operations may be ordered purely to the service and praise of 
the Divine Majesty" (46 [p. 40]). In the Constitutions, the term "right 
intention" expresses a similar emphasis with a variation that allows 
space for things other than God to be in the immediate focus of 
attention: "All should make diligent efforts to keep their intention 
right, not only in regard to their state of life but also in all particular 
things" (ConsCN C 288 vl ). In both cases, regularly refocusing the 
intention, making an effort "fully to be there," is indispensable for 
making progress. 

In the Constitutions, where concrete "virtuous" acts are seen as 
integral parts of a progression toward God (who is to be sought "in 
all things" (C 288 v3 ), the context of the incarnational dynamic re- 
moves the suspicion of an unhealthy voluntarism. What is at stake 
when relating to others is that "by consideration of one another they 
may thus grow in devotion and praise God our Lord, whom each 
one should endeavor to recognize in his neighbor as in His image" 
(C 250 v5 ). The point where one should endeavor to recognize God is 
not given in the first place; it is to be created in the community 
through dispositions and acts that embody an attitude of respect and 
service. In the novitiate, virtuous acts are seen both as the fruit of a 
progression toward God and as a means of promoting it. 

A final parallel between the two Ignatian texts is that in both 
cases, Ignatius gives a host of seemingly minor details about how a 
dynamic movement toward God can be better fostered. For example, 
in the Constitutions, a general sense of union is presented as of 
importance: "[U]nion and agreement among them all ought to be 
sought most earnestly, and the opposite ought not to be permitted" 
(C 273 v5 ). Divisions are to be healed, so that the novitiate is a place 
where trust can develop. In some cases, individuals have to be 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions «0> 25 

moved to another community if sensitivities make peaceful living 
together impossible (C 245). A special warning applies to two areas: 
discussions of a theological nature on the one hand, and disputes 
about everyday practical issues on the other; in the particular con- 
text of the novitiate, Ignatius seems to assume, such discussions can 
become a pretext for hidden or overt hostility. Fruitless controversies 
in these areas should be avoided (C 273). 

To summarize: in the powerful interpersonal milieu of the 
novitiate, a number of Ignatian means work in synergy to help 
individuals toward the developmental goal, namely, to acquire a 
capacity to embed oneself in a concrete web of mutual relationships. 
Individuals are expected and 

helped to maintain a high quality ^^^^_^_^^^_^^^^^^^^ 
of relationships through preserv- 
ing a reconciled heart and an atti- Accordingly, the second phase 
tude of respect and service toward of Jesuit formation seems to 

others. To the extent that there is aim at fostering a 

developed a corresponding habit- transformation of the person 

ual manner of behaving and in a way that this autonomy 
speaking, even of spontaneously is actualized in concrete 

perceiving particular interpersonal life situations. 

situations, less and less conscious 
effort is needed to live in a recon- 
ciled way in one's community: the tension felt in the novitiate at the 
outset can ease. Growing awareness of self and attention to others 
foster empathy; this is how sufficient affective maturity and adequate 
emotional intelligence can be attained in the protected environment 
of the novitiate, where sufficient attention can be paid to these 

After the novitiate, individuals can be admitted to the next 
stage of Jesuit life on the condition that "proper abnegation of 
themselves is seen to be present" (C 307 v3 ). In the perspective of the 
incarnational dynamic, "proper abnegation of themselves" can be 
recognized as a relatively well-defined degree of inner freedom that 
is manifested in the ability to live in a close community and to invest 
oneself fully in its common activities. Sufficient inner freedom at this 
stage enables the person to deal habitually with impulses that hinder 
a desire to live according to Gospel norms in a demanding interper- 
sonal milieu. To the analogy of the Spiritual Exercises, where it is 
useless to begin the Second Week unless there are clear signs that 

26 ^ JAnos Lukacs, S.J. 

the First Week has been accomplished, Ignatius considers that the 
"edifice of learning" which is to be put up during the next stage of 
Jesuit life will not hold unless this "foundation" has been laid (C 307). 

Part IV of the Constitutions: Scholastic Life 

The first paragraph of Part IV explains that the next phase of 
Jesuit formation is also to be seen in the context of "helping [Jesuits 
in formation] to attain the ultimate end for which they were created" 
(C 307 v2 ). In addition to becoming a virtuous person, a goal which 
was predominantly aimed at in the novitiate, "learning and a meth- 
od of expounding it are also necessary." This developmental goal 
intertwines an intellectual and an incarnational aspect, both of which 
are repeated in the same paragraph in slightly different terms: "[I]t 
will be necessary to provide for the edifice of learning, and of skill in 
employing it." Studies are to be done in a way that what has been 
appropriated becomes a resource, both in giving account of it ver- 
bally and as a principle of action in a variety of situations. In devel- 
opmental terms, the goal is to become a person who can talk and 
act, shape his relationships according to insights and convictions 
acquired during the time of studies. 

The demanded transformation, "to provide for the edifice of 
learning, and of skill in employing it so as to help make God our 
Creator and Lord better known and served (C 307 v4 ), evokes the grace 
of the Second Week of the Spiritual Exercises which grants "an 
interior knowledge of the Lord . . . that I may love him more intensely 
and follow him more closely" (104 [p. 56]). In the Exercises, this grace of 
the Second Week transforms radically the way reality is perceived. 
Not unlike what was the case in the First Week, which also changed 
the retreatant's perception of reality through introducing or increas- 
ing an awareness of the divided heart, aspects of reality that could 
not be seen before begin to appear. In the Second Week, light is 
received from contemplations on Jesus' life, and part of each exercise 
is "to reflect upon myself to draw some profit" (114 v3 [p. 59]). The 
words and actions of Jesus, his relationships and his manner of 
being in the world are in some ways projected to the retreatant's 
perception of reality, correlating known elements in new ways, 
inspiring associations and leading to a new sense of meaningfulness 
even in familiar situations. This new way of seeing reality is the 
source of a new freedom to act, and gives rise to a new sense of 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions ^ 27 

autonomy: Jesus' way of behaving inspires acts that would have 
been impossible in the past. 27 With an inner sense of security, a 
person becomes able to see what a "right/ 7 act is. This autonomy is 
very different from the kind of self-government that had to be left 
behind during the First Week ("[f]or let each one think that he will 
benefit himself in all spiritual things in proportion as he goes out of 
his self-love, will and interest" [189 v10 (p. 80)]). The autonomy that is 
the fruit of the Second Week is a grace-filled one, with a sense of 
responsibility and freedom. Accordingly, the second phase of Jesuit 
formation seems to aim at fostering a transformation of the person in 
a way that this autonomy is actualized in concrete life situations. 

To facilitate progress through this phase, Part IV of the Consti- 
tutions demands several elements to work in synergy. First of all, a 
suitable environment has to be set 
up where learning can take place. 

Most chapters of Part IV, there- Both the Exercises and the 

fore, describe how colleges are to Constitutions demand a 

be organized and under what gen- constant interplay between 

eral conditions students can begin receiving the Word of God or 
their studies. The following areas new insights about God and 

are addressed: issues related to the world on the one hand, 

benefactors, material questions, lay an d reframing them within a 
students, subjects to be studied, personal context of meaning 

conditions for accepting universi- on ^ke other. 

ties, setting up a program of stud- 
ies, the complex task of the rector, "^^^^-^^^~— ^^^~^^~ 
and similar concerns. For the pur- 
pose of my argument, chapter 6 is of special interest: "Means for 
Their Learning Well the Aforementioned Subjects." For reasons of 
simplicity, this chapter is going to be our primary reference in Part IV. 

In the new milieu of a college, a scholastic who has just left 
the novitiate finds himself exposed to intellectual challenges. The 
academic environment places a host of demands on his shoulders, 
generating a new field of tension. One of the principal tasks of the 
rector is to maintain an intensive exposure to this new milieu and to 
keep the resulting tension within reasonable limits: "Just as it is 
necessary to hold in those who run too rapidly, so is it proper to 
spur on, push, and encourage those who need it. For this purpose 


Spohn, Go And Do Likewise, 40. 

28 <fc JAnos Lukacs, S.J. 

the rector ought to keep informed" (ConsCN C 386 vvl ~ 2 ; cf. 374). A 
way of maintaining an intensive atmosphere of intellectual work is 
by setting a limit to interpersonal relationships. Even conversations 
that have a pastoral character are considered as likely "impediments 
which distract from study" and "should be removed" (C 362 v l ). As in 
the novitiate, the environment in which a scholastic lives is denned, 
first of all, by a number of separations. These apply to human 
relationships, but also to the necessary separation from the world of 
ideas for the time of rest, spiritual activities, and community life. 

Once the proper formational environment is set up, a series of 
exercises foster movement toward the goal of this phase, an autono- 
mous and committed way of perceiving reality and responding to it. 
Among the usual exercises of studying (using libraries, memorizing 
what was said in lectures, taking notes (C 372, 375 f.), disputations are 
explained more in detail: they seem to have a distinguished role in 
advancing the incarnational dynamic. Scholastics are asked to en- 
gage in them whenever possible, "because of the utility there is in 
the practice of disputation" (C 378 vl ). This activity, which was con- 
sidered useless in the novitiate, is of great importance here "espe- 
cially . . . for those who are study- 
_^^_^^^__^^^_^^_ ing arts and . . . theology" (C 
_. t . . 378 vl ). The exigency of expressing 

Right intention seems to re g U larly whatever has been 

imply both being aware of a , eamed in the context of disputa . 

deep desire to advance tions is similar t0 what happens in 

toward God and the Second Week of the Spiritual 

expressing it. Exercises where insights gained 

^ ^^^_^^^_ from contemplations on Jesus' life 

are to be brought into the "collo- 
quy," where the retreatant enters a dialogue with the Lord "as one 
friend speaks to another" (SpEx 54 vl [pp. 12f.]). Both the Exercises 
and the Constitutions demand a constant interplay between receiving 
the Word of God or new insights about God and the world on the 
one hand, and reframing them within a personal context of meaning 
on the other. A particular feature of disputations is that they can — 
and should — be interesting, that is, both intellectually and affectively 
involving, rich in spiritual motions, which is indicative of an inten- 
sive activity of searching for meaningfulness. In contrast to a casual 
conversation about theological theories, in a disputation a person is 
challenged to identify with ideas and values implied in these theo- 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions ^ 29 

ries. This is how the individual is to find his particular way of "lov- 
ing wisdom" (doing philosophy) and of "talking about God" (doing 
theology), which is in harmony with his specific charisms and with 
the historical development of his personality. 

Three kinds of disputations are to be held (C 378-80]. First, 
scholastics should participate in the disputations — both at special 
events of greater importance and in ordinary "circles" of discus- 
sion — organized by the schools, "even though these schools are not 
those of the Society itself' (C 378 vl ). Second, Jesuit communities are 
to organize regular disputes, based on a talk prepared in advance by 
a scholastic (C 378). Third, somewhat more spontaneously, Jesuit 
communities are to reserve "an hour . . . each day" (C 379 al ) to 
dispute "difficult matters" in the 

presence of a mature Jesuit who ■— — — -— — — — ^^^^^— 
can speak with authority about Studying is not simply useful 
the given question. Why does Ig- because of what is factually 

natius insist that there be three w . in the dynamic of the 

types of disputations? It seems Constitutions, the very 

that the context in which an indi- .... £ . , . , 

. , , „ , f . „ . , . activity of studying plays an 

vidual defends a scholarly as- J . . J ° , , . 

. n ,, ,i • • instrumental role in 

sumption influences the way this is , , ~ , 

j r T , t r, advancing toward God. 

done. In a school setting, the em- d 

phasis is on intellectual integrity; ._____________-_--- 

in a more casual discussion in the 

Jesuit community, the focus can be shifted more explicitly towards 
what is at the heart of an autonomous and dedicated reasoning, the 
personal commitment to Christ, and its implications in existentially 
significant situations. Disputations organized in the community with 
a more official character can create opportunities to integrate two 
previous aspects of communication, namely, personal dedication and 
intellectual integrity, which may appear disparate in the beginning. 
Ignatius seems to consider all three kinds of disputations as indis- 
pensable means of support for scholastics making progress along 
their way to God. This is how the initial commitment to Christ, once 
expressed in spiritual movements, feelings, desires, and insights, is to 
become incarnated in a variety of situations, both by what is said 
and what is done by the person who is making progress in the 
incarnational dynamic of Jesuit formation. 

In the midst of a multitude of philosophical and theological 
concepts and theories, a precondition of progress is that "scholastics 

30 <0* Janos LukAcs, SJ. 

should strive first of all to keep their souls pure and their intention in 
studying right" (C 360 vl ). This demand is once again evocative of the 
"usual" preparatory prayer (SpEx 101 [p. 56]) in the Second Week 
and throughout the Spiritual Exercises: "[A]sk God our Lord for the 
grace that all my intentions, actions, and operations may be ordered 
purely to the service and praise of the Divine Majesty" (46 [p. 40]). 
The Constitutions retain a focus of attention on the service of God 
and enrich it by the incarnational aspect of helping human beings: 
"seeking in their studies nothing except the glory of God and the 
good of souls" (C 360 v2 ). Right intention seems to imply both being 
aware of a deep desire to advance toward God and expressing it. 
Much as is the case in the Exercises, there is no straightforward 
progressing toward God without intending to do so. 

Studies, according to the Constitutions, are not a simple acquisi- 
tion of pieces of information, just as contemplating Jesus' life in the 
Second Week is not simply an affair of collecting new data. Both 
require individual effort — throughout a series of exercises — but 
whether this brings fruit is ultimately a matter of grace: "[T]hey 
should frequently beg in prayer for grace to make progress in 
learning" (C 360 v3 ). This means that movements of consolation and 
desolation can be significant; beyond the intellectual aspect, affectivi- 
ty is also of interest. To study with hostile feelings is to refuse to be 
transformed by what is being learned. Right intention means study- 
ing with a reconciled heart, open to identifying with the values 
encountered. If intellectual work is done with a graced motivation, 
progress is made in the unfolding incarnational dynamic: "[E]ven if 
they never have occasion to employ the matter studied, their very 
toil of study, duly undertaken because of charity and obedience, is 
itself a very meritorious work in the sight of the Divine and Su- 
preme Majesty" (C 361 v2 ). Just as in the Spiritual Exercises, where the 
"success" of a prayer time is not measured by the number of work- 
able insights that one can harvest in it, so studying is not simply 
useful because of what is factually gained: in the dynamic of the 
Constitutions, the very activity of studying plays an instrumental role 
in advancing toward God. 28 


Simone Weil develops this idea beautifully: "Reflections on the Right Use of 
School Studies with a View to the Love of God," in Waiting for God, trans. 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions -0- 32 

Chapter 8 of Part IV, 'The Instruction of the Scholastics in the 
Means of Helping Their Neighbor/ turns toward an explicitly 
incarnational aspect by describing the pastoral training of scholastics, 
who are to become acquainted with "the spiritual arms that they 
must employ in aiding their fellowmen" (C 400 v2 ). 29 Much as in the 
novitiate, where "virtues" are indispensable for incarnating spiritual 
realities in concrete situations, the careful acquisition of pastoral 
skills is seen fully "[i]n view of the objective which the Society seeks 
in its studies" (C 400 v2 ). These preparations foster progress along the 
Ignatian pathway to God by making a person ready to cooperate 
more fully with grace: "Although all this can be taught only by the 
unction of the Holy Spirit and by the prudence which God our Lord 
communicates to those who trust in his Divine Majesty, nevertheless 
the way can at least be opened by some suggestions which help and 
prepare for the effect that is to be produced by divine grace" (C 
414 vv - 3-4 ), 

Paradoxically, although toward the end of their studies 

scholastics are becoming capable of a close cooperation with the 

grace of God, they might feel relatively little indication of this. In a 

way that is familiar from the Spiritual Exercises, progression toward 

God is not continuously accompanied by an affective confirmation. 

Studies can become a "duty in our 

Lord" (C 377) to be fulfilled, and 

one can come close to burnout. r>~~ MM „z^ „„a ~~z~ — 

_. . , Compassion ana pain are 

The activity of studying is sus- £ ., • j- *• *# + +r 

, J . . J b . further indications that the 

tamed to an increasing extent by , . , . 

c L i //mil i u i f retreatant is coming closer to 

faith: [TJhey should have a firm . . ,. A ° „ . 

I . • . t _, perceiving reality as it really is. 

resolution to be genuine and ear- r d J J 

nest students, persuading themselves ______^__ 

that while they are in the colleges 

they cannot do anything more pleasing to God our Lord than to 

study with the intention mentioned above (C 361 vl ). In times of no 

affective confirmation, obedience can top off the ailing sources of 

motivation: studying is "duly undertaken because of charity and 

obedience" (C 361 v2 ). In these times, scholastics are to be held firmly 

Emma Craufurd (New York: Harper and Row, 1951), 105-16. 


Regency, which is a weighty element of formation today, is mentioned in 
chap. 9 as the possibility "to lecture [philosophy] before [a scholastic] studies 
theology" (C 417 v2 ). 

32 ^ JAnos Lukacs, SJ. 

and supported gently, rather like a retreatant going through a 
period of dryness. A precondition for helping, both in the Spiritual 
Exercises and in Jesuit formation, is that one has to be familiar with 
the entire developmental dynamic in order to be able to provide 
competent support. Only in this larger perspective can a time of 
crisis appear as a necessary passage towards the place where God is 
waiting to meet the person more intimately than ever before. 

To summarize: the developmental goal of the second phase of 
Jesuit formation is a transformation of the person so that one be- 
comes able to incarnate Gospel values in a particular historical and 
cultural context. Part IV of the Constitutions describes a number of 
Ignatian means that work in concert to help individuals toward this 
goal. The result is a growing freedom that enables individuals to 
behave with confidence even beyond a protected group of Jesuit 
peers, because a new sense of autonomy offers an inner principle of 
action in yet unfamiliar conditions and interpersonal situations. To 
make progress according to the demands of this phase implies 
choices that can be expected to be difficult; yet a person toward the 
end of this phase of the developmental dynamic is likely to have 
developed a deeply satisfying sense of living a life that is genuinely 

Part V of the Constitutions: Tertianship 

The developmental goal of this "last probation" is once again 
to make "progress" toward God, by means of arriving at "greater 
humility, abnegation . . . and also greater knowledge and love of 
God our Lord" (C 516 v5 ). This goal is complemented by an unusually 
strong emphasis on an apostolic, incarnational aspect: "that when 
they themselves have made progress they can better help others to 
progress for the glory of God our Lord" (C 516 v6 ). Apart from evok- 
ing the notions of humility and abnegation that are familiar from the 
novitiate, the Constitutions say astonishingly little about this phase of 
Jesuit formation. In the light of the Third Week of the Spiritual 
Exercises, however, it can be elucidated to some degree. 

Proportionally, the Third Week also occupies relatively little 
space in the book of the Exercises. Its basic dynamic is a progressive 
opening up to feelings of "sorrow . . . regret . . . confusion" (SpEx 
193 [p. 189]) and "sorrow ... a broken spirit . . . and interior suffer- 
ing" (203 [p. 83]). This week transforms once again the retreatant's 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions ^ 33 

ability to perceive reality by proposing episodes to be contemplated 
that do not make sense in the same way as those do in the Second 
Week. The scene of Jesus healing a blind person who cries out for 
help makes eminent sense, and it is a deep source of revelation of 
how God wants to be in relationship with us. The scene of a crown 
of thorns being put on the head of Jesus, who is clothed in purple in 
the midst of a group of soldiers, is not meaningful in the same way. 
There is no intelligible answer to the "why" question; what is con- 
templated does not directly make sense. God is not manifested 
straightforwardly in the scenes of the Passion: "[T]he divinity hides 
itself" (196 [p. 82]). Theological arguments about redemption cannot 
undo this hiding of the divinity; all they can do is confirm that these 
scenes are worth being contemplated at great length and detail, and 
fruit can be expected from familiarizing oneself with the workings of 
suffering. Whoever desires to be with Christ in this situation has to 
go beyond the "why" question. When "confusion" (193 [p. 81]) sets 
in, this is a good sign that a step has been made. Compassion and 
pain are further indications that the retreatant is coming closer to 
perceiving reality as it really is. As the person is becoming ac- 
quainted with the pain inherent in his or her situation, a new 
freedom to behave differently is being brought forth, a freedom to 
"stay with" painful situations that are frightening at first sight be- 
cause they do not make sense, but where one knows God to be 
present. Beyond the "why" question and beyond the pain, beyond 
the periodic changes of consolation and desolation, these contempla- 
tions lead to a radically new way of perceiving reality through a 
quiet, peaceful, sustained, loving awareness in an unfulfilled desire 
for God, which we know to be the point of stillness where the 
spiritual dynamic of the Third Week intends to lead. 

Tertianship, the "school of the heart" (ConsCN 516 v4 ), places 
Jesuits in a Third Week milieu by sending them among the poor, 
into hospitals, or other situations of despair. The place has to be 
such that Jesuits feel frustrated; more exactly, progression toward 
God can be made on the condition that this probation can "engen- 
der in them greater humility, abnegation of all sensual love and will 
and judgment of their own" (C 516 v5 ). In this new situation of 
tension, individuals spend their time "exercising themselves in 
spiritual and corporal pursuits" (C 516), among people in miserable 
conditions to ease their physical, mental, or spiritual suffering. For 
the desired dynamic to unfold, sufficient time, about a "year" (C 

34 <0> Janos LukAcs, SJ. 

514 v2 ), is to be spent in this environment ("[h]owever, just as this 
period may be prolonged, so too ... it may be shortened in some 
cases and for important reasons. But this power should be used 
rarely" [C 515]). 

"Humility" (C 516 v5 ) sets in with the progressive recognition 
that one is unable to help the way one would like to. To endure the 
dumbness of the heart under the gaze of a mother holding her dead 
baby is a moment of profound humiliation, because after many years 
of theological studies and in some cases professional training, after 
having read dozens of books, one is still unable to help, let alone to 
respond to the compelling question: "Why is this happening? How 

can God let this happen?" Feeling 
^ _^^^^_^^^^_ like running away can be com- 
pounded with feelings of anger 
The fruit of tertianship is a anc j disappointment or uselessness 

deep conviction that God is m a general sense of confusion. 

to be found beyond the ideas ., , , . 

T J . .. ,, . Yet for a person who per- 

and expectations that one ,. ^ i, 

, r , t . , _ sists in seeking God s presence, 

may have of this world, even such ^^ moments are close to 

if one's desire to serve is becoming moments of grace. Be- 

fatally frustrated. yond the humiliation a new, yet 

^_^^^^^^_^^^^^^^__ unfamiliar option can open up, 

accessible through spiritual effort 
and the grace of God: a peaceful stillness can set in, a strength to 
choose to stay in the place of pain, to endure the deadly silence of 
the heart, in the midst of the meaninglessness, beyond the tempta- 
tion to revolt and the temptation to give up, with no other support 
than faith in the living God and an unfulfilled desire for God's 
presence. Little by little there can emerge an unusual sense of union 
with the person whose presence had caused so much frustration to 
the learned Jesuit so eager to help, exposing him to the temptation 
of considering himself a failure. It becomes clear that no theological 
considerations and no actions are needed, at least nothing beyond 
small gestures of support and a few words of prayer that arise from 
the depth of the heart. Yet this "not doing anything" is unmistakably 
different from a selfish, careless, disappointed, or fearful immobility. 
It is the passivity of the servant who is waiting even at the second or 
third watch of the night, akin to what happens in times of contem- 
plative prayer during the Spiritual Exercises. After such timeless 
moments, one might be surprised to hear the other person say, 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions -& 35 

'Thank you," as if her problem had been solved, as if one's presence 
really mattered, or as if part of her burden was taken away. Looking 
back to what happened, the awareness can emerge that God's 
presence was experienced in the very place where it had been so 
unimaginable to find God. God was witnessed, not simply as a 
spiritual desire, feeling, or thought, but as a reality offering peace 
and healing in an interpersonal situation that was not long ago so 
hopelessly overshadowed by death. 

As a result of a series of similar — yet amazingly varied — 
experiences, one can "make progress" (C 516 v6 ) along the incarna- 
tional dynamic of the Third Week. In retrospect, one can understand 
how each choice to persist in a situation of misery entails a moment 
of giving up insisting on usual ways of thinking and helping others, 
like efforts to comfort the person, praying that God would undo the 
situation, or theologizing in an attempt to justify God. The price for 
the Third Week dynamic to set in was to say no to all this, or in the 
words of the Constitutions, the "abnegation of all sensual love and 
will and judgment of their own" (C 516 v5 ). After a number of such 
experiences, one can begin to look at oneself from a new perspec- 
tive: my desperate efforts to do something were actually the greatest 
obstacle for God's presence to be manifested! This is a revolutionary 
discovery, and to the extent that one is helped to realize how this is 
a regular pattern in a variety of life situations, 30 the yearlong stay 
among the poor will be seen as a highly meaningful probation, in 
agreement with the modest formulation of the Constitutions: "[I]t will 
be helpful" (C 516 v4 ). With a sense of gratitude, the person will 
acknowledge that he had been led, in ways that were radically new, 
to "greater knowledge and love of God our Lord" (C 516 v5 ). This is 
how the person gets ready to enter the fourth and final phase of the 
incarnational dynamic of the Constitutions. 

To summarize, tertianship brings about a familiarity with the 
limits of one's capacity to love; it exposes the limitations of one's 
power to change the world for the better; and it brings about a 
profound awareness of the boundaries of one's thinking about God, 
the world, and oneself. The fruit of tertianship is a deep conviction 


Supervision or spiritual direction that is open to the contemplative 
dimension is of immense help in recognizing subtle ways of not being receptive to 
grace. See W. A. Barry and W. J. Connolly, The Practice of Spiritual Direction (San 
Francisco: HarperCollins, 1982). 

36 <$- JAnos Lukacs, S.J. 

that God is to be found beyond the ideas and expectations that one 
may have of this world, even if one's desire to serve is fatally frus- 
trated. Compassionate, patient, and loving attentiveness becomes a 
familiar way of seeking God in situations of distress and apparent 
meaninglessness, resulting in a growing awareness of how a vain 
effort of action or reflection can hinder the manifestation of God's 
presence. The result is a previously unknown sense of freedom, 
identity, and union with human beings and with God. 

Part VI of the Constitutions: After Final Vows 

Correlations between the first three stages of Jesuit life and the 
first three weeks of the Spiritual Exercises hint that the fourth stage of 
both dynamics could also be compared to each other. Yet is it not 
too daring, is it not just an illusion to look for a Fourth Week dy- 
namic in "ordinary" Jesuit life after the years of formation? How 
does one imagine the incarnational, "everyday" equivalent of the 
joyous immediacy of contemplating "how God labors and works for 
me in all things" (SpEx 236 vl ) at the culmination of an intensive 
thirty-day spiritual experience? At this point one is not compelled to 
go ahead by some new theory on the Constitutions, but to continue 
the quest to rediscover the original charism of the Society: "[A] direct 
and ongoing sense of God's presence, practically the same thing as 
consolation, . . . was what Jesuits hoped for themselves and tried to 
excite in others." 31 Jeronimo Nadal explains that a favorite saying of 
Ignatius, "finding God in all things," is to be understood as the 
manifestation of a Fourth Week dynamic in daily life: "To him was 
given an order of prayer by which he, a contemplative even while 
active, was led to a sense of God's presence and spiritual reality in 
all objects, in all activities, in all conversations. He used to clarify it 
this way: God is to be found in all things." 32 

Nadal describes here a radically new way of perceiving reality 
which evokes the Contemplation on the Love of God in the Spiritual 
Exercises (230 vl [p. 94]), where God is discovered in all things, in 

31 O'Malley, First Jesuits, 371. 


Quoted in William Bangert, Jerome Nadal, S.J., 1507-1580: Tracking the First 
Generation of Jesuits (Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1992), 214. 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions ^ 37 

human beings and in every creature. He then continues by explain- 
ing that this charism of Ignatius is that of the whole of the Society of 

Much to the intense wonder and consolation of us all, we have seen 
this interior light-giving grace break in a kind of radiance that envel- 
oped his face and manifested itself in the shining sureness of what 
he did in Christ. We have an inkling that something of that grace — I 
do not know exactly what — has been turned toward us. What there- 
fore we understand to be a privilege given to Ignatius, we believe 
has been granted to the entire Society. We feel sure that prayer and 
contemplation of this mode have been given in the Society for all of 
us. We affirm that this prayer is tied to our vocation. (214) 

Does Nadal speak about "prayer and contemplation" or about 
everyday life? At this point in the discussion the two are hard to 
distinguish. The privilege to find God in all things in everyday life is 
evocative of the Fourth Week of the Spiritual Exercises with its 
contemplations on meeting the risen Lord in a variety of situations. 
In some cases the Lord was sought and in others he was not; he was 
met by people praying or work- 
ing, being at home or on the way, ^_^^^^^_^^^^^^^^_ 
and so forth. The grace to be . ' rim . , 

prayed for is "to ask for what I A new form of hfe becomes 

want. ... to rejoice intensely be- possible as the Fourth Week 

cause of the great glory and joy of dynamic is progressively 

Christ our Lord" (SpEx 221 [p. 91]). embodied in a variety of 

The focus of these contemplations everyday-life situations; this 
is the consolation brought by is how one becomes fully 

Christ (224 [p. 92]) or the way the receptive to the grace of being 
Divinity appears (223 [p. 93]). The contemplative even while 

contemplations of the Fourth active, a privilege that 

Week open the retreatant to a according to Nadal "has been 
new way of perceiving reality: the granted to the entire Society." 
world is revealed to be a sacred 
place where Christ can manifest 

himself on unexpected occasions and where the presence of God can 
be sought with confidence. Accordingly, in the Contemplation on 
the Love of God (230-237 [pp. 94 f.]), after a long series of medita- 
tions and contemplations with strictly focused spiritual topics, the 
horizon opens up to everyday activities and to the entire created 
world. At the end of the thirty days spent in a series of spiritual 

38 <$> Janos LukAcs, S.J. 

exercises, one can return home with a new way of perceiving reality 
and with a new freedom to act in response to God's action in the 

In a similar manner, after an arduous developmental trajectory 
where God might have often appeared distant and even excessively 
harsh in the midst of the demands of successive milieus of forma- 
tion, Part VI of the Constitutions envisions a convergence between 
"everyday" and "spiritual" life. Jesuit life opens up to an intimacy 
with God that was previously only accessible in privileged moments 
of prayer; at this stage "it is presupposed that [Jesuits] will be men 
who are spiritual and sufficiently advanced that they will run in the 
path of Christ our Lord" (C 582 v3 ). A new form of life becomes 
possible as the Fourth Week dynamic is progressively embodied in a 
variety of everyday-life situations; this is how one becomes fully 
receptive to the grace of being contemplative even while active, a 
privilege that according to Nadal "has been granted to the entire 

The goal of this phase of Jesuit life is to bring fruit: "to apply 
themselves more fruitfully according to our Institute in the service of 
God and the aid of their neighbors" (C 547 v3 ). At this point, the 
dynamic of the Constitutions becomes self-sustaining, somewhat like 
what tends to happen toward the end of the thirty-day Exercises. 
There is no formational environment, no formator to facilitate the 
process, and there is no — more or less artificially maintained — field 
of tension. Formed Jesuits enjoy great freedom and autonomy, 
coupled with a new responsibility: "[T]hey need to observe certain 
things" (C 547 v3 ). 

Among the things to be observed, "the most important . . . are 
reduced to the vows" (C 547 v4 ). For reasons of simplicity, we are 
going to summarize this phase of Jesuit life by focusing on the vows. 

The Vows 

What is the role of the vows in fostering the incarnational 
dynamic of the Constitutions! The Fourth Week dynamic is character- 
ized by a high degree of inner freedom that allows reality to be 
perceived in its full richness, enabling the individual to see with 
relative ease how God's presence transcends the created world. The 
vows address major areas where this inner freedom can be compro- 
mised and a narrowness of vision can set in. First of all, the vow of 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions <$- 39 

poverty concerns ways of relating to impersonal objects. The Spiritual 
Exercises speaks about this issue in the context of a war metaphor. In 
the meditation on the Two Standards, the question of "riches" is the 
"first step" in a battle where the Lord recommends spiritual and 
actual poverty, while the tactic of Lucifer is to "set up snares and 
chains" (SpEx 142 vl , 146 v5 ). The Constitutions also rely on a war 
metaphor to describe this area: "The enemy of the human race 
generally tries to weaken this defense and rampart which God our 
Lord inspired religious institutes to raise against him and the other 
adversaries of their perfection" (ConsCN C 553 v3 ). Images of combat 
seem to reflect the fact that freedom in this area can be gained at the 
price of more or less painful detachments, whether from objects of 
comfort or from a self-forgetful immersion in the administration of 
material goods. Due to the pain inherent in every act of detachment, 
poverty in the initial stages of progressing toward God could often 
be seen as a nuisance. From the perspective of the spiritual freedom 
proper to the Fourth Week, however, it becomes a supportive ally in 
defending the precious gift of spiritual freedom: "Poverty, as the 
strong wall of the religious institute, should be loved and preserved 
in its integrity as far as this is possible with God's grace" (C 553 v2 ). 

The second area where inner freedom can be compromised is 
that of interpersonal relationships. In the meditation on the Two 
Standards, this is the second "step," where diametrically opposed 
choices are being offered, "honor" 

by Lucifer and "reproaches or con- ^__^^^^^^_^^^^^^^__ 
tempt" by Christ (SpEx 142 v2 , 

146 v5 ). When talking about the In contrast, a person who has 
vows, the Constitutions address the made Progress in the Fourth 

area of interpersonal relationships Week incarnational dynamic 

by making a succinct mention of begins to understand how the 
the vow of chastity. The common observance of the vows 

feature is that the spiritual free- dynamically leads back to 

dom proper to the Fourth Week seeking the immediacy of the 
dynamic can be diminished and presence of God. 

the corresponding richness of per- 
ceiving reality can be narrowed 

down if a self-forgetful immersion in interpersonal relationships 
entails the development of unordered attachments. Ignatius seems to 
presuppose that this is a very common human experience: "What 

40 <0> JANOS LUKACS, S.J. 

pertains to the vow of chastity requires no interpretation, since it is 
evident how perfectly it should be preserved" (ConsCN C 547 v5 ). 

The third area where spiritual freedom can be endangered 
involves a person's relationships with ideas and ideals. In the medi- 
tation on the Two Standards, choices are to be made between 
// pride ,/ and "humility/ 7 This is the third, last, and decisive step in 
advancing toward God. Pride implies a sense of power, while humil- 
ity implies a sense of gratitude. Pride, or excessive self-esteem, is the 
unconscious identification with an attractive ideal, in contrast to 
humility, which implies a realistic awareness of self. "If we are 
relatively free from mistaking image for reality in other areas, we at 
least idolize our self-images." 33 The Constitutions addresses the issue 
of relating to ideas and ideals by talking about obedience as some- 
thing that applies not simply to what is being done ("the execution") 
but also to the way one is motivated and one thinks ("the willing, 
and the understanding" [547 v10 ]). In times when a self-forgetful 
immersion in ideas and ideals might risk a serious narrowness of 
vision, Ignatius asks us to "[apply] all our energies with very special 
care to the virtue of obedience" and thus to go beyond this limita- 
tion of the perspective: "They should keep in view God our Creator 
and Lord, for whom such obedience is practiced" (547 vv8_7 ). 

In the Fourth Week perspective, the vows are seen as means 
of support for maintaining an ongoing relationship with God rather 
than as reminders of sore privations. Since a previously unknown 
richness of perceiving reality makes it possible to "understand" (SpEx 
235 v2 [p. 95]) in a new way, Part VI can offer a fresh look at the 
vows, which "may be further explained and commended" (ConsCN C 
547 v4 ) to professed Jesuits. At earlier phases of the pathway to God, 
the vows were something to accept in faith, supported by compan- 
ions who were also accepting them, and by a limited understanding 
which was always possible. They were part of life but they remained 
on the horizon, beyond reach, since they contributed to imposing 
the fields of tension that kept a Jesuit working at the limits of his 
capabilities in a given formational environment. One might even 
have been tempted to see them as perhaps necessary but quite 
"unnatural" inventions rather than gifts of God. In contrast, a person 
who has made progress in the Fourth Week incarnational dynamic 


Gerald G. May, Will and Spirit: A Contemplative Psychology (San Francisco: 
Harper and Row, 1982), 111. 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions -& 41 

begins to understand how the observance of the vows dynamically 
leads back to seeking the immediacy of the presence of God. For 
someone who is to direct himself along the Ignatian "pathway to 
God" in a world where there is little social support for religious life, 
this understanding is vital. However, "understanding" is not meant 
in a rationalistic sense, as it does not supplement faith. Once again 
there is an analogy to giving the Spiritual Exercises, where we can 
lead retreatants with a great sense of security because our under- 
standing of what happens is based upon our own experience, on the 
authority of the Ignatian text, on the Gospels, and on our trust in 
the immeasurable generosity of the Lord. Whenever such wisdom 
yields fruit, we perceive it as an unexpectedly fresh gifts of God, 
whether directing others or ourselves. 

To summarize: after final incorporation into the Society, the 
goal is to become more fruitful in serving God and helping human 
beings. This can be done with a degree of inner freedom that makes 
an intimate sense of God's presence relatively easily accessible in any 
life situation. Precondition for such a life is the "observance" of the 
vows, which at this stage is to be done both in the sense of their 
being obeyed and in the sense of their being meditated upon. Over 
time, less and less conscious reflection on self will be needed. A 
growing ease in putting the vows at the service of an intimate and 
committed relationship with God leads to increasing freedom and to 
an ever-greater openness to reality and to God, whose presence 
shines through "all things" more and more compellingly. 

IV. Possible Methods for Continuing 
the Exploration 

The preliminary presupposition of this essay was that the 
Ignatian "pathway to God" as laid out in the Constitutions can 
be conceived as a dynamic psycho-spiritual development 
analogous to the familiar dynamic of the Spiritual Exercises. Based on 
this insight, we have sketched out an initial understanding of the 
gradual development of Jesuit life in growing freedom in the Spirit. 
Although a sweeping initial portrayal of the Ignatian "incarnational 
dynamic" probably brings up more questions than answers, we have 
drawn up some of the principal traits of the process of growth that, 
according to the Constitutions, characterizes Jesuit life. 

42 <$> Janos LukAcs, S.J. 

In addition to having found a number of instances where 
elements of the Spiritual Exercises "shine through" the Constitutions' 
depiction of Jesuit life from the novitiate through scholastic years to 
tertianship and beyond, we have also observed many signs of a 
stronger linkage between the two texts. Consequently, we can 
advance the hypothesis that the Ignatian pathway to God is cap- 
tured in the Constitutions as a dynamic of incarnation that follows 
closely the Four Week structure of the Spiritual Exercises. The three 
major demanding transformations that a Jesuit goes through during 
the years of formation are familiar from the Exercises. The fruit of 
each stage of formation is a whole set of competencies that enable 
the individual to deal with the challenges of the given formational 
environment. These competencies stem from the graces of the 
Spiritual Exercises, and can be seen as their incarnation in a person's 
habitual ways of perceiving reality and responding to the typical 
challenges of the milieu where the particular transformation takes 

The insight that there is an intrinsic correlation between 
spiritual development in the Exercises and "incarnational" develop- 
ment in the Constitutions is in need of further confirmation. As 
possible focuses for a continuing discussion, I am quickly evoking 

three promising ways of exploring 
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ in a more systematic manner the 

Ignatian "pathway to God." 

Seeing the Constitutions in c . . . i . ., .. 

, d . . . , First, a structural similarity 

the mirror of various human with the d [c of the Exerdses 

developmental models could would place the Constitutions in 

also help us to appreciate the the andent context of Western 
extraordinarily steep and Christian mysticism that habitually 

rewarding developmental divides human progression toward 

trajectory implied in Jesuit G od into three "Ways," the purga- 

formation. tive, the illuminative, and the uni- 

^^ ma __ / _ mm ^_^^^^^^^^_ tive. 34 For Ignatius, this was a self- 
evident background for interpret- 
ing the Exercises: "[IJlluminative life . . . corresponds to the exercises 
of the second week . . . purgative life . . . corresponds to those of the 

See Javier Melloni, The Exercises of St Ignatius Loyola in the Western Tradition, 
trans. Michel Ivens (Leominster: Gracewing, 2000.) 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions -& 43 

first" (10 v7 ^ [p. 24]). 35 Familiarity with the spiritual tradition of the 
"three ways" could be of significant help in understanding the 
Constitutions and in increasing our capacity to support Jesuits in 
formation. For example, the basic insight that in the illuminative 
phase, "theological virtues" — faith, hope, and charity — are chal- 
lenged to grow could shed light on how scholastics tend to perceive 
their situation, and how further dynamic growth in the Spirit can be 
better fostered in the particular conditions of this stage of formation. 

Another field of research would open to us by examining the 
stages of formation described by the Constitutions in light of contem- 
porary human developmental theories. There are a surprising num- 
ber of correlations with higher-level (meaning adult) stages of estab- 
lished developmental models, and these correlations could shed 
much light on the anthropological foundations of Ignatian spiritual- 
ity. For example, at each stage of Jesuit formation, the developmen- 
tal goal appears to correlate with successive "basic needs" or deep 
human desires described by A. 
Maslow. 36 This evokes the "id 

quod volo" of the Spiritual Exer- In terms of human 

cises, where the graces to be development, the 

prayed for at each stage cor- Constitutions seem to give 

respond to profound desires of the surprisingly pertinent 

individual who is moving through insights to some of our chief 

the Exercises. Since the conception questions and needs in a 

of the incarnational dynamic of postmodern world. 

the Constitutions is solidly rooted 

in the fundamental Ignatian con- — — ^ , ^" — ~^^^~" 
cern of a progression toward God, 

psychological aspects can be studied without fearing an unjust 
reduction of spirituality to psychology. As a result, developmental 
models could contribute significantly to describing in contemporary 
terms the characteristics of each stage. Seeing the Constitutions in the 
mirror of various human developmental models could also help us 


The 1599 Official Directory to the Spiritual Exercises explains how the three 
ways are both successive and overlapping, and also how the four "weeks" 
correspond to three "ways." See On Giving the Spiritual Exercises: The Early Jesuit 
Manuscript Directories and the "Official Directory of 1599," trans, and ed. Martin E. 
Palmer, S.J. (St. Louis: The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1996), chap. 39, pp. 346-48. 


A. Maslow, Motivation and Personality (New York: Harper and Row, 1954). 

44 <$> JANOS LUKACS, S.J. 

to appreciate the extraordinarily steep and rewarding developmental 
trajectory implied in Jesuit formation. In terms of human develop- 
ment, the Constitutions seem to give surprisingly pertinent insights to 
some of our chief questions and needs in a postmodern world. 

Perhaps the most interesting area of research opens out into a 
third field, that of Ignatian and general Christian anthropology. As a 
relatively recent trend in developmental psychology, mainstream 
theories of psychological and moral development can be discussed in 
a single comprehensive framework that is capable of integrating 
previously isolated (psychodynamic, cognitive, existential, moral, and 
so on) aspects of human development. 37 In recent years, several 
authors have found this comprehensive model to be well in tune 
with a Christian and, more specifically, with an Ignatian perspective. 
It has been applied fruitfully in areas like spiritual direction, analyz- 
ing the Spiritual Exercises, and conceptualizing the psycho-spiritual 
development implied in Jesuit formation. 38 Although this model is 
still evolving, the perspective of discussing spiritual, intellectual, 
emotional, and moral issues in an integrated way is extremely 
promising. On the horizon, one can discern the outlines of a Chris- 
tian anthropology that is compatible both with our Western spiritual 
tradition and with the best achievements of psychological research 
during the past century. This anthropology would be in many ways 
comparable to the Thomist model, which integrated Aristotelian 
anthropology into Christian spirituality in the thirteenth century. 
The major difference is that, in contrast to a static Greek anthropol- 
ogy, a modern dynamic paradigm would be more appropriate for 


Robert Kegan, The Evolving Self: Problem and Process in Human Development 
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982), and id., In Over Our Heads: The Mental 
Demands of Modern Life (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994). 


Regarding spiritual direction see Wolski Joann Conn, Spirituality and 
Personal Maturity (New York: Paulist, 1989), and Elizabeth Liebert, Changing Life 
Patterns: Adult Development in Spiritual Direction (St. Louis: Chalice Press, 2000). 
Regarding the analysis of the Spiritual Exercises, see David C. McCallum, S.J., 
"Growing in Wisdom and Grace: Constructive-Developmental Theory as a Heuristic 
Framework for Interpreting the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola" (S.T.L. 
thesis, Weston Jesuit School of Theology, 2001). Regarding the conceptualization of 
psycho-spiritual development, see Janos Lukacs, S.J., "A Postmodern Twist in the 
Jesuit Novitiate: Developmental Anthropology and Ignatian Formation" (S.T.L. thesis, 
Weston Jesuit School of Theology, 2002). 

The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions ^ 45 

seamless integration into the Christian conception of a human 
being's dynamic progression toward God. 

Theory and Practice in Understanding the Constitutions 

I hope that even in its present fragmentary form, the concept 
of the "incarnational dynamic" of the Constitutions will prove to be 
useful in promoting Jesuit formation in a contemporary world and 
in integrating a vital Ignatian source into our reflections and discus- 
sions about Jesuit life. A more explicit use of the Constitutions would 
allow a more precise identification of Ignatian goals at each stage of 
formation, enabling us to evaluate our current goals and to establish 
them more clearly where necessary. Clearer goals could foster more 
fruitful exchanges among formators about how to promote these 
goals and how to apply Ignatian means more purposefully in a 
contemporary cultural context. Eventually, one could be introduced 
into the art of accompanying persons along the incarnational dy- 
namic of the Constitutions, much as one can already become skilled 
in giving the Spiritual Exercises under supervision or in thematic 

Although many details of the Constitutions still remain to be 
interpreted in a contemporary context, there is hope that these 
elements will begin to fall into place as we begin to see them in 
correlation with the underlying developmental dynamic. Our under- 
standing of the Ignatian text can be expected to deepen through a 
more precise attention to the praxis of Jesuit formation, rather like 
what happened in the case of the Spiritual Exercises, where attention 
to the text and attention to the practice of applying it have proved 
to be mutually beneficial since the beginning of our modern Ignatian 

Engaging in this renewal means, according to the Constitutions, 
close cooperation with God who "will preserve and carry forward 
what He deigned to begin" (C 812 v3 ). In giving the Spiritual Exer- 
cises, we have been experiencing the abundant graces of cooperating 
with God who "communicate [s] Himself to the devout soul" (14 v4 [p. 
25]) in amazingly powerful ways. We can reasonably hope that the 
continuing integration of the Constitutions into our common Jesuit 
life will become a graced experience to a similar extent. In our 
movement toward God, we can trust to be carried "on eagles' wings" 
(Exod. 19:4), while God's glory can continue to be manifested more 
plainly in this least Society. 

Supplemental Bibliography 

Note: Many other relevant items can be found in the bibliographies of 
Ganss, Saint Ignatius' Idea of a Jesuit University, as well as in Gehl, 
Grendler, McCabe, and Scaglione, all listed below. 

Atteberry, John, and John Russell, eds. Ratio Studiorum: Jesuit Education, 1540- 
1773. Chestnut Hill, Mass.: Boston College, 1999. 

Bartlett, Dennis Alan. The Evolution of the Philosophical and Theological Elements of 

the Jesuit "Ratio Studiorum": An Historical Study, 1540-1599. Ann Arbor, Mich.: 

University Microfilms International, 1985. 
Bertran Quera, Miguel. La pedagogia de los Jesuitas en la Ratio studiorum: La 

fundacion de colegios, origenes, autores y evolucion historica de la Ratio, andlisis de 

la educacion religiosa, caracterologica e intelectual. San Cristobal, Caracas: 

Universidad Catolica del Tachira, Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios; 

Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Historicas, 

Bianchi, Angelo. Ratio atque institutio studiorum Societatis Iesus: Ordinamento degli 

studi delta Compagnia di Gesii. Milan: Biblioteca Universale Rizzoli, 2002. 
Bonachea, Rolando E., ed. Jesuit Higher Education: Essays on an American Tradition 

of Excellence. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1989. 
Brizzi, Gian Paolo, ed. La "ratio studiorum": Modelli culturali e pratiche educative dei 

Gesuiti in Italia tra cinque e seicento. Rome : Bulzoni, 1981. 
Brown, Stephen F. "Theology and Philosophy." In Medieval Latin: An Introduction 

and Bibliographic Guide, edited by F. A. C. Mantello and A. G. Rigg, 267-87. 

Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 1996. 
Buckley, Michael J., SJ. The Catholic University as Promise and Project: Reflections 

in a Jesuit Idiom. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1998. 
Cabral Texo, Jorge. El Ratio Studiorum de la Compania de Jesus: Su influencia en el 

primer plan de estudios de la Universidad de Cordoba. Buenos Aires: Impr. y 

Casa Editora de Coni Hnos., 1912. 
Cacho Vazquez, Xavier. La Ratio studiorum de la Compania de Jesus y los valores. 

Mexico, D. F.: Universidad Iberoamericana, Centro de Integracion Universi- 

taria, 1994. 
Codina Mir, Gabriel, S.J. Aux sources de la pedagogie des Jesuites: Le "modus parisi- 

ensis." Rome: Institurum Historicum Societatis Iesu, 1968. 
Colombat, Bernard. La grammaire latine en France a la Renaissance et a I' Age clas- 

sique: Theories et pedagogie. Grenoble: Ellug, Universite Stendahl, 1999. 
Dainville, Francois de. ^education des Jesuites (XVT-XVIH e siecles). Paris: Les 

Editions de Minuit, 1978. 
Daly, Peter M., and G. Richard Dimler, S.J. The Jesuit Series: Corpus Librorutu 

Emblematum. Montreal: McG ill-Queen's University Press, 1997. 
Deferrari, Roy J. A Latin-English Dictionary of Saint Thomas Aquinas. Boston: 

Daughters of St. Paul, 1960. 


48 <0> JAnos Lukacs, S.J. 

Demoustier, Adrien, and Dominique Julia. Ratio Studiorum: Plan raisonne et 

institution des etudes dans la Compagnie de Jesus. Edition bilingue latin-francais. 

Translated by Leone Albrieus and Dolores Pralon-Julia. Annotations and 

commentary by Marie-Madeleine Compere. Paris: Belin, 1997. 
Donohue, John W., S.J. Jesuit Education: An Essay on the Foundation of Its Idea. 

New York: Fordham University Press, 1963. 
Duminuco, Vincent J., S.J., ed. The Jesuit Ratio Studiorum: 400th Anniversary 

Perspectives. New York: Fordham University Press, 2000. 
Farrell, Allan Peter, S.J. The Jesuit Code of Liberal Education: Development and Scope 

of the Ratio Studiorum. Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Company, 1938. 
. The Jesuit "Ratio studiorum" of 1599, Washington, D.C.: Conference of 

Major Superiors of Jesuits, 1970. 
Fitzpatrick, Edward A., ed. St. Ignatius and the "Ratio studiorum." The Ratio studio- 
rum translated by A. R. Ball; the Constitutions, Part IV, translated by Mary 

Helen Mayer. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1933. 
Franca, Leonel. O metodo pedagogico dos jesuitas: O "Ratio Studiorum," Introduqao e 

Traduqao. Rio de Janeiro: Agir, 1952. 
Ganss, George, S.J. Saint Ignatius' Idea of a Jesuit University. 2nd ed. Milwaukee: 

Marquette University Press, 1956. 
Ganss, George, S.J., trans, and ed. The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus. Saint 

Louis: The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1970. 
Gehl, Paul F. A Moral Art: Grammar, Society, and Culture in Trecento Florence. 

Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1993. 
Gil, Eusebio, and C. Labrador. La pedagogia de los jesuitas, oyer y hoy. Madrid : 

Universidad Pontificia de Comillas, 1999. 
Gil, Eusebio. ed., with Carmen Labrador; A. Diez Escanciano; J. Martinez de la 

Escalera. El sistema educativo de la Compania de Jesus: La "Ratio studiorum." 

Edition bilingue, estudio historico-pedagogico, bibliografia. Madrid: Univer- 
sidad Pontificia Comillas, 1992. 
Grendler, Paul F. Schooling in Renaissance Italy: Literacy and Learning, 1300-1600. 

Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. 
Homann, Frederick A., and Ladislaus Lukacs. Church, Culture, & Curriculum: 

Theology and Mathematics in the Jesuit "Ratio studiorum." Philadelphia: Saint 

Joseph's University Press, 1999. 
Instituto Ignacio de Loyola. Anuario del Instituto Ignacio de Loyola / Loiolako Inazio 

Institutuen Urekaria: Cuarto Centenario de la Ratio Studiorum. San Sebastian: 

Universidad de Deusto, Instituto Ignacio de Loyola, 1999. 
Jaeger, C. Stephen. The Envy of Angels: Cathedral Schools and Social Ideals in 

Medieval Europe, 950-1200. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 

Luce, Giard, et al. Les Jesuites a la Renaissance: Systeme educatif et production du 

savoir. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1995. 
Martinez Marquez, Eduardo. Vigencia del Ratio studiorum de la Compania de Jesus. 

Habana, Colegio de Belen, 1957. 

Supplemental Bibliography -0- 49 

McCabe, William H., S.J. An Introduction to the Jesuit Theater. Edited by Louis J. 

Oldani, SJ. Saint Louis: The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1983. 
McGucken, William J., SJ. The Jesuits and Education: The Society's Teaching Princi- 
ples and Practice, Especially in Secondary Education in the United States. New 

York: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1932. 
Mestre, Antonio, and Itziar Vilar Rey. Ratio studiorum: Una llibreria jesu'ita a la 

Universitat de Valencia. Valencia: Universitat de Valencia, 2001. 
Nugent, Daniel C. "The Grand Act at St. Louis University," The Woodstock Letters 

32 (1903): 82-93. 
O'Malley, John W., SJ. The First Jesuits. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 

. "The Council of Trent: Myths, Misunderstandings, and Misinformation." 

In Spirit, Style, Story: Essays Honoring John W. Padberg, S.J. Edited by Thomas 

M. Lucas, S.J., 205-23. Chicago: Loyola Press, 2002. 

'The Jesuit Educational Enterprise in Historical Perspective." In Jesuit 

Higher Education: Essays on an American Tradition of Excellence, edited by 

Rolando Bonachea, 10-25. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1989. 
Ong, Walter J., SJ. Ramus: Method, and the Decay of Dialogue: From the Art of 

Discourse to the Art of Reason. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 

Padberg, John W., S.J., "Development of the Ratio Studiorum." In The Jesuit "Ratio 

Studiorum": 400th Anniversary Perspectives, edited by Vincent J. Duminuco, 

S.J., 80-100. New York: Fordham University Press, 2000. 
Padberg, John W., S.J.; Martin O'Keefe, S.J.; John McCarthy, SJ. For Matters of 

Greater Moment: The First Thirty Jesuit General Congregations. Saint Louis: The 

Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1994. 
Paquet, Andre. "Ratio studiorum": Code pedagogique de la Compagnie de Jesus. 

Montreal: Aux Editions de l'Entr'aide, 1940. 
Pedersen, Olaf. The First Universities: Studium Generale and the Origins of 

University Education in Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. 
Rashdall, Hastings. The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. Edited by F. M. 

Powicke and A. B. Emden. 3 vols. Sandpiper Edition. London: Oxford 

University Press, 1997; originally published in 1895. 
Rubio i Goday, Angel, and Miquel Batllori. Ratio studiorum: L'ordenacio dels 

estudis dels jesuites. Vic: Eumo, 1999. . 
Russell, Daniel. "Alciati's Emblems in Renaissance France," Renaissance Quarterly 

34, no. 4 (1981): 534-54. 
Salomone, Mario. Ratio atque institutio studiorum Societatis Jesu: L ordinamento 

scolastico dei collegi dei gesuiti. Milan: Feltrinelli economica, 1979. 
Scaglione, Aldo. The Liberal Arts and the Jesuit College System. Philadelphia: John 

Benjamins Publishing Company, 1986. 
Schlafly, Daniel L., Jr. "The Ratio Studiorum on Alien Shores: Jesuit Colleges in 

St. Petersburg and Georgetown," Rivista Portuguesa de Filosofia 55 (1999): 253- 


50 <0> JAnos Lukacs, S.J. 

. * True to the Ratio Studiorum?' Jesuit Colleges in St. Petersburg/' History 

of Education Quarterly 37 (1997): 421-34. 
Schwickerath, Robert, S.J. Jesuit Education: Its History and Principles Viewed in the 

Light of Modern Educational Problems. Saint Louis, Mo.: B. Herder, 1903. 
Sirignano, Fabrizio Manuel. L'itinerario pedagogico delta Ratio studiorum. Naples: 

Luciano, 2001. 
Tanner, Norman P., ed. Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. 2 vols. New York: 

Sheed and Ward, 1990. 
Tinsley, Barbara Sher. "Johann's Sturm's Method for Humanistic Pedagogy." 

Sixteenth Century Journal 20 (1989):10, 23-40. 
Tripole, Martin, S.J. ed. Jesuit Education 21: Conference Proceedings on the Future of 

Jesuit Higher Education. Philadelphia: St. Joseph's University Press, 2000. 
. ed. Promise Renewed: Jesuit Higher Education for a New Millenium. Chicago: 

Jesuit Way, 1999. 


Past Issues: Studies in the Spirituality of Jesuits 

(For prices, see inside back cover.) 

1/1 Sheets, Profile of the Contemporary Jesuit (Sept. 1969) 
1/2 Ganss, Authentic Spiritual Exercises: History and Terminology (Nov. 1969) 
2/1 Burke, Institution and Person (Feb. 1970) 
2/2 Futrell, Ignatian Discernment (Apr. 1970) 

2/3 Lonergan, Response of the Jesuit as Priest and Apostle (Sept. 1970) 
3/1 Wright, Grace of Our Founder and the Grace of Our Vocation (Feb. 1971) 
3/2 O'Flaherty, Some Reflections on Jesuit Commitment (Apr. 1971) 
3/4 Toner, A Method for Communal Discernment of God's Will (Sept. 1971) 
3/5 Sheets, Toward a Theology of the Religious Life (Nov. 1971) 
4/2 Two Discussions: I. Spiritual Direction, II. Leadership and Authority (Mar. 1972) 
4/3 Orsy, Some Questions about the Purpose and Scope of the General Congregation (June 1972) 
4/4 Ganss, Wright, O'Malley, O'Donovan, Dulles, On Continuity and Change: A Symposium 
(Oct. 1972) 
5/1-2 O'Flaherty, Renewal: Call and Response (Jan.-Mar. 1973) 
5/3 Arrupe, McNaspy, The Place of Art in Jesuit Life (Apr. 1973) 
5/4 Haughey, The Pentecostal Thing and Jesuits (June 1973) 

5/5 Orsy, Toward a Theological Evaluation of Communal Discernment (Oct. 1973) 
6/3 Knight, Joy and Judgment in Religious Obedience (Apr. 1974) 
7/1 Wright, Ganss, Orsy, On Thinking with the Church Today (Jan. 1975) 
7/2 Ganss, Christian Life Communities from the Sodalities (Mar. 1975) 
7/3 Connolly, Contemporary Spiritual Direction: Scope and Principles (June 1975) 
7/5 Buckley, The Confirmation of a Promise; Padberg, Continuity and Change in General 

Congregation XXXII (Nov. 1975) 
8/1 O'Neill, Acatamiento: Ignatian Reverence (Jan. 1976) 
8/2-3 De la Costa, Sheridan, and others, On Becoming Poor: A Symposium on Evangelical Poverty 
(Mar.-May 1976) 
8/4 Faricy, Jesuit Community: Community of Prayer (Oct. 1976) 
9/1-2 Becker, Changes in U.S. Jesuit Membership, 1958-75; Others, Reactions and Explanations 
(Jan.-Mar. 1977) 
9/4 Connolly, Land, Jesuit Spiritualities and the Struggle for Social Justice (Sept. 1977). 
9/5 Gill, A Jesuit's Account of Conscience (Nov. 1977) 

10/1 Kammer, "Burn-Out"— Dilemma for the Jesuit Social Activist (Jan. 1978) 
10/4 Harvanek, Status of Obedience in the Society of Jesus; Others, Reactions to Connolly-Land 

(Sept. 1978) 
11/1 Clancy, Feeling Bad about Feeling Good (Jan. 1979) 

11/2 Maruca, Our Personal Witness as Power to Evangelize Culture (Mar. 1979) 
11/3 Klein, American Jesuits and the Liturgy (May 1979) 
11/5 Conwell, The Kamikaze Factor: Choosing Jesuit Ministries (Nov. 1979) 
12/2 Henriot, Appleyard, Klein, Living Together in Mission: A Symposium on Small Apostolic 

Communities (Mar. 1980) 
12/3 Conwell, Living and Dying in the Society of Jesus (May 1980) 
12/4-5 Schineller, Newer Approaches to Christology and Their Use in the Spiritual Exercises (Sept. -Nov. 

13/1 Peter, Alcoholism in Jesuit Life (Jan. 1981) 

13/3 Ganss, Towards Understanding the Jesuit Brothers' Vocation (May 1981) 

13/4 Reites, St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jews (Sept. 1981) 

14/1 O'Malley, The Jesuits, St. Ignatius, and the Counter Reformation (Jan. 1982) 

14/2 Dulles, St. Ignatius and Jesuit Theological Tradition (Mar. 1982) 

14/4 Gray, An Experience in Ignatian Government (Sept. 1982) 

14/5 Ivern, The Future of Faith and Justice: Review of Decree Four (Nov. 1982) 

15/1 O'Malley, The Fourth Vow in Its Ignatian Context (Jan. 1983) 

15/2 Sullivan and Faricy, On Making the Spiritual Exercises for Renewal of Jesuit Charisms (Mar. 


15/3-4 Padberg, The Society True to Itself: A Brief History of the 32nd General Congregation of the 

Society of Jesus (May-Sept. 1983) 

15/5-16/1 Tetlow, Jesuits' Mission in Higher Education (Nov. 1983-Jan. 1984) 

16/2 O'Malley, To Travel to Any Part of the World: Jeronimo Nodal and the Jesuit Vocation (Mar. 


16/3 O'Hanlon, Integration of Christian Practices: A Western Christian Looks East (May 1984) 

16/4 Carlson, "A Faith Lived Out of Doors": Ongoing Formation (Sept. 1984) 

17/1 Spohn, St. Paul on Apostolic Celihacy and the Body of Christ (Jan. 1985) 

17/2 Daley, "In Ten Thousand Places": Christian Universality and the Jesuit Mission (Mar. 1985) 

17/3 Tetlow, Dialogue on the Sexual Maturing of Celibates (May 1985) 

17/4 Spohn, Coleman, Clarke, Henriot, Jesuits and Peacemaking (Sept. 1985) 

17/5 Kinerk, When Jesuits Pray: A Perspective on the Prayer of Apostolic Persons (Nov. 1985) 

18/1 Gelpi, The Converting Jesuit (Jan. 1986). 

18/2 Beirne, Compass and Catalyst: The Ministry of Administration. (Mar. 1986) 

18/3 McCormick, Bishops as Teachers and Jesuits as Listeners (May 1986) 

18/5 Tetlow, The Transformation of Jesuit Poverty (Nov. 1986). 

19/1 Staudenmaier, United States Technology and Adult Commitment (Jan. 1987) 

19/2 Appleyard, Languages We Use: Talking about Religious Experience (Mar. 1987) 

19/5 Endean, Who Do You Say Ignatius Is? Jesuit Fundamentalism and Beyond (Nov. 1987) 

20/1 Brackley, Downward Mobility: Social Implications of St. Ignatius's Two Standards (Jan. 1988) 

20/2 Padberg, How We Live Where We Live (Mar. 1988) 

20/3 Hayes, Padberg, Staudenmaier, Symbols, Devotions, and Jesuits (May 1988) 

20/4 McGovern, Jesuit Education and Jesuit Spirituality (Sept. 1988) 

20/5 Barry, Jesuit Formation Today: An Invitation to Dialogue and Involvement (Nov. 1988) 

21/1 Wilson, Where Do We Belong? United States Jesuits and Their Memberships (Jan. 1989) 

21/2 Demoustier, Calvez, et al., The Disturbing Subject: The Option for the Poor (Mar. 1989) 

21/3 Soukup, Jesuit Response to the Communication Revolution (May 1989) 

22/1 Carroll, The Spiritual Exercises in Everyday Life (Jan. 1990) 

22/2 Bracken, Jesuit Spirituality from a Process Prospective (March 1990) 

22/3 Shepherd, Fire for a Weekend: An Experience of the Exercises (May 1990) 

22/4 O'Sullivan, Trust Your Feelings, but Use Your Head (Sept. 1990) 

22/5 Coleman, A Company of Critics: Jesuits and the Intellectual Life (Nov. 1990) 

23/1 Houdek, The Road Too Often Traveled (Jan. 1991) 

23/2 DiGiacomo, Ministering to the Young (March 1991) 

23/3 Begheyn and Bogart, A Bibliography on St. Ignatius's Spiritual Exercises (May 1991) 

23/4 Shelton, Reflections on the Mental Health of Jesuits (Sept. 1991) 

23/5 Toolan, "Nature Is a Heraclitean Fire" (Nov. 1991) 

24/1 Houdek, Jesuit Prayer and Jesuit Ministry: Context and Possibilities (Jan. 1992) 

24/2 Smolich, Testing the Water: Jesuits Accompanying the Poor (March 1992) 

24/3 Hassel, Jesus Christ Changing Yesterday, Today, and Forever (May 1992) 

24/4 Shelton, Toward Healthy Jesuit Community Living (Sept. 1992) 

24/5 Cook, Jesus' Parables and the Faith That Does Justice (Nov. 1992) 

25/2 Donahue, What Does the Lord Require? (March 1993)— ONCE AGAIN AVAILABLE 

25/3 Padberg, Ignatius, the Popes, and Realistic Reverence (May 1993) 

25/4 Stahel, Toward General Congregation 34 (Sept. 1993) 

25/5 Baldovin, Christian Liturgy: An Annotated Bibliography (Nov. 1993) 

26/1 Tetlow, The Most Postmodern Prayer (Jan. 1994) 

26/2 Murphy, The Many Ways of Justice (March 1994) 

26/3 Staudenmaier, To Fall in Love with the World (May 1994) 

26/4 Foley, Stepping into the River (Sept. 1994) 

26/5 Landy, Myths That Shape Us (Nov. 1994) 

27/1 Daley, "To Be More like Christ" (Jan. 1995) 

27/2 Schmidt, Portraits and Landscapes (March 1995) 

27/3 Stockhausen, I'd Love to, but I Don't Have the Time (May 1995) 

27/4 Anderson, Jesuits in Jail, Ignatius to the Present (Sept. 1995) 

27/5 Shelton, Friendship in Jesuit Life (Nov. 1995) 

28/1 Begheyn, Bibliography on the History of the Jesuits (Jan. 1996) 

28/3 Clooney, In Ten Thousand Places, in Every Blade of Grass (May 1996) 

28/4 Starkloff, "As Different As Night and Day" (Sept. 1996) 

28/5 Beckett, Listening to Our History (Nov. 1996) 

29/1 Hamm, Preaching Biblical Justice (Jan. 1997) 

29/2 Padberg, The Three Forgotten Founders (March 1997) 

29/3 Byrne, Jesuits and Parish Ministry (May 1997) 

29/4 Keenan, Are Informationes Ethical? (Sept. 1997) 

29/5 Ferlita, The Road to Bethlehem-Is It Level or Winding? (Nov. 1997) 

30/1 Shore, The Vita Christi of Ludolph of Saxony and Its Influence on the Spiritual Exercises of 

Ignatius of Loyola (Jan. 1998) 

30/2 Starkloff, "I'm No Theologian, but... (or So . . . )?" (March 1998) 

30/3 Torrens, The Word That Clamors (May 1998) 

30/4 Petrik, "Being Sent" (Sept. 1998) 

30/5 Jackson, "One and the Same Vocation" (Nov. 1998) 

31/1 Clifford, Scripture and the Exercises (Jan. 1999) 

31/2 Toohig, Physics Research, a Search for God (March 1999) 

31/3 Fagin, Fidelity in the Church— Then and Now (May 1999) 

31/4 Schineller, Pilgrim Journey of Ignatius (Sept. 1999) 

31/5 Fu\hm,Juana, S.J.: Status of Women in the Society (Nov. 1999) 

32/1 Langan, The Good of Obedience in a Culture of Autonomy (Jan. 2000) 

32/2 Blake, Listen with Your Eyes (March 2000) 

32/3 Shelton, When a Jesuit Counsels Others (May 2000) 

32/4 Barry, Past, Present, and Future (Sept. 2000) 

32/5 Starkloff, Pilgrimage Re-envisioned (Nov. 2000) 

33/1 Kolvenbach et al., Faith, Justice, and American Jesuit Higher Education (Jan. 2001) 

33/2 Keenan, Unexpected Consequences: Parsons's Christian Directory (March 2001) 

33/3 Arrupe, Trinitarian Inspiration of the Ignatian Charism (May 2001) 

33/4 Veale, Saint Ignatius Asks, "Are You Sure You Know Who I Am?" (Sept. 2'001) 

33/5 Barry and Keenan, How Multicultural Are We? (Nov. 2001) 

34/1 Blake, "City of the Living God" (Jan. 2002) 

34/2 Clooney, A Charism for Dialog (March 2002) 

34/3 Rehg, Christian Mindfulness (May 2002) 

34/4 Brackley, Expanding the Shrunken Soul (Sept. 2002) 

34/5 Bireley, The Jesuits and Politics in Time of War (Nov. 2002) 

35/1 Barry, Jesuit Spirituality for the Whole of Life (Jan. 2003) 

35/2 Madden/Janssens, The Training of Ours in the Sacred Liturgy (March 2003) 

35/3 Marcouiller, Archbishop with an Attitude (May 2003) 

35/4 Modras, A Jesuit in the Crucible (Sept. 2003) 

35/5 Lucas, Virtual Vessels, Mystical Signs (Nov. 2003) 

36/1 Rausch, Christian Life Communities for Jesuit University Students? (Spring 2004) 

36/2 Bernauer, The Holocaust and the Search for Forgiveness (Summer 2004) 

36/3 Nantais, "Whatever!" Is Not Ignatian Indifference (Fall 2004) 

36/4 Lukacs, The Incarnational Dynamic of the Constitutions (Winter 2004) 



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